Cortex Lesion and Diseases Flashcards Preview

Neuro Block 3 > Cortex Lesion and Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cortex Lesion and Diseases Deck (23):
1

what is Balint's syndromes?

what happens here? 

oculomotor disorder due to bilateral lesions of the parietal and occipital lobes.

 

can't execute voluntary movements in response to visual stimuli. 

- Individual has normal visual fields and acuity, but will focus on only one object at a time

 

2

What are the symptoms of Balint's syndrome?

  • Optic ataxia: can't move the hand towards an object by visual guidance
  • Optic apraxia: can't voluntarily control one’s gaze; dont have the saccadic jump
  • Simultagnosia: can't recognize more than 1 object at a time

3

What is another name for Phineas Gage?

what are its symptoms?

frontal lobe syndrome

symptoms:

  1. Personality changes: can't behave normally socially 

  2. Deficits in strategic planning

  3. Perseveration

  4. ‘primitive’ reflexes are seen again (suckling, babinski, moro)

  5. Abulia: no motivation to do voluntary actions

  6. Sphincteric incontinence

4

in what other disease can phineas gage be seen?

 

 

alzheimer's

5

into what 2 regions can we divide the prefrontal cortex?

1) orbitofrontal: inferior surface of frontal lobe

2) dorsolateral: middle and superior forntal gyri

6

identify the regions of the frontal lobe?

7

what does the orbitofrontal region of prefrontal cortex contain or do?

what does the dorsolateral region of prefrontal cortex contain or do?

it has limbic connections for social behavior

 

it works with concentration, planning, judgement, problem solving

8

what will be seen when there is primary motor cortex damage?

  • Contralateral paralysis,
  • hyperreflexia,
  • Babinski

9

what is the pre-motor cortex involved in?

what happens when there is pre-motor cortex damage?

planning movement by integrating sensory and motor information

 

will result in apraxia

10

damage to supplementary motor area will result in what?

alien hand syndrome

11

what happens if there is damage to brodmanns area 17 unilateral only?

unilateral damage = hemianopia with macular sparing

 

12

what happens if there is damage to brodmann's areas 18, 19?

possible visual hallucinations

13

how do you get Gerstmann's syndrome?

what are the symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome?

damage to brodmann areas 39 and 40 in the dominant hemisphere

symptoms:

  • contralateral hemi or quadrantinopia
  • right-left confusion (dont know which is which)
  • finger agnosia
  • agraphia
  • dyscalculia

 

14

in what lobe do we find brodmann's 41/42?

what is brodmann's 41/42? 

what happens if there is unilateral damage to brodmann 41/42?

what happens if there is bilateral damage to brodmann 41/42?

 

temporal

primary auditory

 little hearing loss

bilateral = cortical deafness

 

15

what happens if you have Meyer’s loop damage?

what if you damage Primary olfactory cortex (34)?

you get contralateral upper quandrantinopia

 

 

you get ipsilateral anosmia

16

what do you get if both hemispheres are damaged?

Prosopagnosia

Auditory agnosia

Neglect

17

what do you get if non-dominant hemisphere is damaged?

Dysprosody

Anosognosia

Constructional apraxia

Dressing apraxia

18

what do you get if the dominant hemisphere is damaged?

Apraxia

Aphasia

Gerstmann's syndrome

Agraphia

19

what is this?

fibrillary tangles

20

what is this?

Neuritic plaques: Dendrites degenerate to form ‘stacks’ of dendrites.

21

what is Alzheimer's?

what is characteristic of it?

Age related degeneration of cerebral cortex

- there is degeneration of ACh neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert

 

Characterized by: 

  • Loss of ACh neurons in nucleus basalis.
  • Beta-amyloid plaque accumulation.
  • Neurofibrillary tangles.

22

what is Binswanger’s subcortical leukoencephalopathy?

what does it result in?

what can cause it?

symptoms seen?

 

Age related ischemic damage to white matter

results in an Alzheimer’s like dementia

hypertension

Progressive dementia, rigidity and gait problems.

 

23

what are the functions of the prefrontal cortex?

decision making, learning, reasoning and correct social behavior