what is Balint's syndromes?
what happens here?
oculomotor disorder due to bilateral lesions of the parietal and occipital lobes.
can't execute voluntary movements in response to visual stimuli.
- Individual has normal visual fields and acuity, but will focus on only one object at a time
What are the symptoms of Balint's syndrome?
- Optic ataxia: can't move the hand towards an object by visual guidance
- Optic apraxia: can't voluntarily control one’s gaze; dont have the saccadic jump
- Simultagnosia: can't recognize more than 1 object at a time
What is another name for Phineas Gage?
what are its symptoms?
frontal lobe syndrome
Personality changes: can't behave normally socially
Deficits in strategic planning
‘primitive’ reflexes are seen again (suckling, babinski, moro)
Abulia: no motivation to do voluntary actions
in what other disease can phineas gage be seen?
into what 2 regions can we divide the prefrontal cortex?
1) orbitofrontal: inferior surface of frontal lobe
2) dorsolateral: middle and superior forntal gyri
identify the regions of the frontal lobe?
what does the orbitofrontal region of prefrontal cortex contain or do?
what does the dorsolateral region of prefrontal cortex contain or do?
it has limbic connections for social behavior
it works with concentration, planning, judgement, problem solving
what will be seen when there is primary motor cortex damage?
- Contralateral paralysis,
what is the pre-motor cortex involved in?
what happens when there is pre-motor cortex damage?
planning movement by integrating sensory and motor information
will result in apraxia
damage to supplementary motor area will result in what?
alien hand syndrome
what happens if there is damage to brodmanns area 17 unilateral only?
unilateral damage = hemianopia with macular sparing
what happens if there is damage to brodmann's areas 18, 19?
possible visual hallucinations
how do you get Gerstmann's syndrome?
what are the symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome?
damage to brodmann areas 39 and 40 in the dominant hemisphere
- contralateral hemi or quadrantinopia
- right-left confusion (dont know which is which)
- finger agnosia
in what lobe do we find brodmann's 41/42?
what is brodmann's 41/42?
what happens if there is unilateral damage to brodmann 41/42?
what happens if there is bilateral damage to brodmann 41/42?
little hearing loss
bilateral = cortical deafness
what happens if you have Meyer’s loop damage?
what if you damage Primary olfactory cortex (34)?
you get contralateral upper quandrantinopia
you get ipsilateral anosmia
what do you get if both hemispheres are damaged?
what do you get if non-dominant hemisphere is damaged?
what do you get if the dominant hemisphere is damaged?
what is this?
what is this?
Neuritic plaques: Dendrites degenerate to form ‘stacks’ of dendrites.
what is Alzheimer's?
what is characteristic of it?
Age related degeneration of cerebral cortex
- there is degeneration of ACh neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert
- Loss of ACh neurons in nucleus basalis.
- Beta-amyloid plaque accumulation.
- Neurofibrillary tangles.
what is Binswanger’s subcortical leukoencephalopathy?
what does it result in?
what can cause it?
Age related ischemic damage to white matter
results in an Alzheimer’s like dementia
Progressive dementia, rigidity and gait problems.
what are the functions of the prefrontal cortex?
decision making, learning, reasoning and correct social behavior