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Flashcards in Visual Systems Deck (42):

which visual field information remains ipsilateral?

which visual field information crosses to the contralateral side of the optic chiasm?




identify 1 and 2

Q image thumb

A image thumb

Upper Visual Field is controlled by which part?

Lower Bank of Calcarine Sulcus


Lower Visual Field is controlled by which part?

Upper Bank of Calcarine Sulcus


what is the circuit followed by signals in vision?

Optic Nerve

Optic Chiasm

Optic Tract


Visual Cortex


what does the visual cortex receive?


fibers from the LGN


what happens in the LGN?

it divides into upper and lower


where does the optic tract go?

sends info from the left/right to the LGN


optic tract, ipsilateral nasal field fibers will project where?

contralateral temporal  field fibers will project where?

layers 2,3,5 of the LGN

layers 1,4,6 of the LGN


all fibers that the LGN receives will then project where?

into layer 4 of the visual cortex


the LGN has two types of neurons, what are these?

Parvocellular: small  cells which receive input from small ganglion cells in the retina.


Magnocellular: large cells, receiving input from large ganglion cells.


identify  the areas

Q image thumb

  1. Optic Nerve
  2. Lateral Optic Chiasm
  3. Central Optic Chiasm
  4. Optic Tract
  5. Meyer's Loop (lower part of the Geniculocalcarine tract)
  6. Upper part of Geniculocalcarine tract
  7. Visual cortex


what do you get if the optic nerve is damaged?



what may cause optic nerve damage?

unilateral blindness


trauma and optic neuritis


what happens if you damage the lateral part of the Optic chiasm?

what may cause bilateral damage to the lateral optic chiasm?

what is the most common cause for damage to the lateral part of the optic chiasm?

binasal hemianopia


internal carotid aneurysm


calcified internal carotid arteries


what do you get if there is damage to the central part of the optic chiasm?


what may cause damage to the central part of the optic chiasm?

bitemporal hemianopia


pituitary tumor and craniopharyngioma


what happens if you get damage to the optic tract?

right or left homonymous hemianopia


what happens is there is damage to Meyer's loop?

what happens if there is damage to the upper geniculocalcarine tract?

what happens if there is damage to the Visual cortex?

upper quadrantinopia

lower quadrantinopia

homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing


if there is damage to the visual cortex, there is macular sparing due to what?

because of anastomosis of the calcarine and middle cerebral arteries in the most posterior region of the visual cortex, which receives macular fibers.


what is this called?

what can lead to it?

Q image thumb

constricted field

end stage glaucoma or conversion disorder


what is this called?

what can lead to it?

Q image thumb

central scotoma

optic neuritis, MS


what is this?

what can cause it?

Q image thumb

upper altitudinal hemianopia

bilateral damage to the lingual damage


what is this?

what can cause it?

Q image thumb

lower altitudinal hemianopia

bilateral damage to cuneus gyrus


what is the blood supply to the following areas:

  1. optic nerve
  2. optic chiasm
  3. optic tract
  4. LGN
  5. geniculocalcarine tract
  6. visual cortex 

  1. circle of willis
  2. anterior cerebral and internal carotid
  3. PCA and anterior choroidal
  4. PCA and anterior choroidal
  5. MCA, anterior choroidal and calcarine
  6. calcarine and MCA


calcarine artery is a branch off which other artery?

Anterior choroidal artery is a branch off what artery?


internal carotid


what are the 6 eye muscles and the CN that controls each?

  • CN 3
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
    • medial rectus
    • inferior oblique
  • CN 4
    • superior oblique
  • CN 6
    • lateral rectus


in what direction will each muscle turn the eye

  1. superior rectus
  2. inferior rectus
  3. medial rectus
  4. inferior oblique
  5. lateral rectus
  6. superior oblique

  1. up
  2. down
  3. adduct
  4. up and abduct
  5. abduct
  6. down and abduct


how do you test for superior and inferior rectus muscles?


how do you test for superior and inferior oblique?

tell patient to look 23 degrees lateral and then move up and down



Ask the patient to look medially 23 degrees and then move up and down


a lesion of CN 3,4,6 is at what level?

damage to the MLF is at what level?

if horizontal or vertical gaze damage is at what level?

nuclear level




if horizontal gaze is damaged what part is affected?

what about vertical gaze?

frontal eye field

pontine tegmentum


Damage to CN VI will result in?

Lack of abduction, medial deviation at rest (strabismus)


 Horizontal diplopia only, when looking in direction of lesion.


what is 1 and a half syndrome?

Damage to abducens nucleus may only affect the lateral rectus itself; it may also affect the connections of abducens nucleus to the contralateral, CN III (lateral/horizontal conjugate gaze, reviewed in a few slides).


can result from damage to pons: leading 

  • Ispilateral CN VI (lateral rectus).
  • MLF connection to ispilateral CN III (medial rectus).
  • MLF connection to contralateral CN III (medial rectus).


what do you get with this lesion?

Q image thumb

1 and a half syndrome


Control of voluntary conjugate movements includes which structures?

frontal eye fields, parietal lobe, PPRF, and rostral




rostral MLF damage can cause what?



what happens if you damage the Frontal Eye Fields?

paralysis of vertical (upward) gaze (Parinauds)



there is no conjugate gaze to the lesioned side and inability of the eyes to look voluntarily to the opposite side.


Damage to frontal eye fields, or PPRF, can be considered as?

supranuclear opthalmoplegia


what is MLF Syndrome?

demyelination of the medial longitudinal fasciculus interrupts connections between CN III, IV, VI, and VIII.


basically Disconnection of CN III and VI interferes

with the lateral conjugate gaze.


Parietal eye field is superior parietal lobule; damage here results in what?

decreased eye movements towards the opposite side and neglect


how will someone with CN 6 walk?

  1. dejected appearance: Patient will tilt head forward to compensate for difficulties in depressing the eye.
  2. Patient will tilt head to the side to compensate

    for rotational problems (torsional diplopia). Head tilt is towards a nucleus, and away from a nerve, lesion.


what is Aniscoria?

what is scotoma?

asymmetric pupils

blind spots in visual field


what is a Argyl Robertson Pupil?

what may cause it?

an absence of direct and consensual light reflexes.  Miotic reaction to accommodation/convergence is still intact


(doesnt react to light but do constrict in conversion)


syphilis, diabetes, and lupus.


how does the puppillary reflex work?

  • Light stimulates the afferent component of CN II; these axons synapse in both pretectal areas.
  • Neurons in the pretectal areas send axons to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of CN III (bilaterally).
  • Efferents from CN III innervate the pupillary sphincter via the ciliary ganglion, causing pupillary  constriction.


how many layes does the superior colliculus have?

what are they?

what is the main function of each?



what is the overall function of the superior colliculus?


what happens if there is damage here?


  1. Superficial: receives info from retina and visual association areas (18, 19).
  2. Middle: receives frontal eye field info.

  3. Deep: gets ascending sensory info.


  • big role in reflexive eye movements,
  • nothing happens