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Flashcards in Only diseases Deck (73):


what is the most common hyperkinetic basal ganglia dysfunction?

what is the most common hypokinetic basal ganglia dysfunction?

Huntington's Disease


Parkinson's Disease


what is chorea?

what is athetosis?

what is dystonia?

what is ballismus?

rapid jerky involuntary movement

continued involuntary movement

locking muscles in a position

involuntary flinging of limbs


What is the cause of developing Huntington's Disease?


why do we see the symptoms in this disease?


how do we categorize the symptoms seen in Huntington's Disease?

loss of the ENK neurons of the striatum/neostriatum


Because the loss of ENK neurons allows the Globus Pallidus lateral to keep throwing GABA to the subthalamic nucleus...the globus pallidus medial does not get stimulated, the thalamus keeps active the cortex




When does Sydenham's Chorea happen?


what ages are susceptible to this disease?


what are the symptom's seen?

after following a viral infection, in particular Rheumatic Fever


ages 5-15


milkmaids grasp (rhythmic squeezing when the patient attempts to grab something), choreic hand, darting tongue and PRONATOR SIGN


At what age does Parkinson's Disease start?

What causes the symptoms to be seen in Parkinson's Disease?

What can be seen in microscopy to identify Parkinson's?

how do we categorize parkinson's disease symptoms?

what are parkinson's disease symptoms?


loss of neuromelanin due to loss of substantia negra

Lewy bodies


resting tremor, bradykinesia


what is Wilson's Disease?

What are the symptoms of Wilson's Disease?

In what part of the brian will the accumulation occur in wilson's disease?

Copper accumulation in Liver, eyes, brain, kidneys due to a enzyme deficiency


fatigue, hepatitis, cirrhosis, behavioral changes, hypo or hyperkinetic movements, infertility, arrhytmias, Kayser-Fleischer rings


Copper accumulates in the lentiform nuclei


what are the 3 types of cerebral palsy?

what gets damaged in each?

  1. spastic = corticospinal (motor cortex)
  2. ataxic = cerebellum
  3. athetoid or dyskinetic = basal ganglia damage


What do you see in a Anterior genu Lesion?

Akinetic mutism (patient doesnt move or talk)

tactile agnosia (cant sense things with touch)


What do you see with a Posterior Genu Lesion?

Alexia without agraphia: you can write but cant read)


what is Somatoparaphrenia?

patient shows‘delusional’ misidentification, or confabulation, with regards to the affected limb


("thats not my arm, but shes wearing my ring")


what is Asomatognosia?

what may cause it?


  • not perceiving one side of the body (or ignoring a part of the body)
  • neglect or paralysis of limb


say yes or no in each part of the table 


  1. what is visual agnosia?
  2. what is color agnosia?
  3. what is tactile agnosia?
  4. what is movement agnosia?
  5. what is anosognosia?
  6. what is autotopagnosia agnosia?
  7. what is statognosis?
  8. what is astereognosis? 
  9. what is auditory agnosia?
  10. what is prosopagnosia?

  1. cant recognize an object visually
  2. cant name or distinguish colors
  3. cant recognize an object by touching it with either hand
  4. can't determine objects that are static or moving
  5. can't recognize that you have a disease
  6. can't recognize a part of your own body
  7. can't recognize spatial positioning of body parts
  8. tactile agnosia but in both arms
  9. cant recognize speech, animal sounds, mechanical sounds
  10. can't recognize faces


what is constructional apraxia?

cannot reproduce an image 


what is this an example of?



what is this an example of?

contructional apraxia 


what is this an example of?

contructional apraxia with neglect


what is neglect?

not recognizing an area of space


what is Papilledema?

non-inflammatory congestion of the optic disc 

(papilla) due to increased intracranial pressure.


what is Retinitis Pigmentosa?

hereditary condition causing progressive deterioration of rods, resulting in loss of peripheral vision.


what is Diabetic retinopathy?

Blood vessels swell, proliferate and distort.  Will cause blindness if untreated.


what is Proliferative retinopathy?

advanced form of diabetic retinopathy


what do you get if the optic nerve is damaged?



what may cause optic nerve damage?

unilateral blindness


trauma and optic neuritis


what happens if you damage the lateral part of the Optic chiasm?

what may cause bilateral damage to the lateral optic chiasm?

what is the most common cause for damage to the lateral part of the optic chiasm?

binasal hemianopia


internal carotid aneurysm


calcified internal carotid arteries


Damage to CN VI will result in?


there will be what type of diplopia? and only when looking in which direction?

Lack of abduction, medial deviation at rest (strabismus)


 Horizontal diplopia only, when looking in direction of lesion.


what is 1 and a half syndrome?

Damage to abducens nucleus may only affect the lateral rectus itself; it may also affect the connections of abducens nucleus to the contralateral, CN III (lateral/horizontal conjugate gaze, reviewed in a few slides).


can result from damage to pons: leading 

  • Ispilateral CN VI (lateral rectus).
  • MLF connection to ispilateral CN III (medial rectus).
  • MLF connection to contralateral CN III (medial rectus).


rostral MLF damage can cause what?



what happens if you damage the Frontal Eye Fields?

paralysis of vertical (upward) gaze (Parinauds)



there is no conjugate gaze to the lesioned side and inability of the eyes to look voluntarily to the opposite side.


Damage to frontal eye fields, or PPRF, can be considered as?

supranuclear opthalmoplegia


what is MLF Syndrome?

demyelination of the medial longitudinal fasciculus interrupts connections between CN III, IV, VI, and VIII.


basically Disconnection of CN III and VI interferes

with the lateral conjugate gaze.


how will someone with CN 6 walk?

  1. dejected appearance: Patient will tilt head forward to compensate for difficulties in depressing the eye.
  2. Patient will tilt head to the side to compensate

    for rotational problems (torsional diplopia). Head tilt is towards a nucleus, and away from a nerve, lesion.


what is Aniscoria?

what is scotoma?

asymmetric pupils

blind spots in visual field


what is a Argyl Robertson Pupil?

what may cause it?

an absence of direct and consensual light reflexes.  Miotic reaction to accommodation/convergence is still intact


(doesnt react to light but do constrict in conversion)


syphilis, diabetes, and lupus.


what is Foster Kennedy Syndrome?

what symptoms are seen?

Meningioma of the olfactory groove that compresses the olfactory tract and optic nerve

  1. ipsilateral anosmia
  2. optic atrophy
  3. contralateral papilledema.


what is synesthesia?

condition wherein a stimuli for one sense is

perceived as another sense


(smell words)


what is Anosmia?

what is hypo or hyper-osmia?

what is dysosmia?

what is parosmia?

what is phantosmia?

  • Loss of sensation of smell.
  • Diminished/enhanced sensation.
  • Distorted sensation.
  • Things smell worse than they should (occurs sometimes during upper respiratory infections).
  • Smelling something when there are no odors present (could be psychiatric i.e. schizophrenia,but also occurs with seizures and migraines).


what is Olfactory Reference Syndrome (ORS):?

A persistent, false belief that one is emitting body

odors that are foul, and offensive to others.


The behavior of others is easily and often 

misperceived (i.e. someone sniffs, or opens a 

window, and the ORS person assumes it’s 

because of them).  



what is Ageusia?

what is Hypogeusia?

what is Hypergeusia?

what is Dysgeusia?

what is Parageusia?

  • Loss of sense of taste
  • Diminished sensation
  • Enhanced sensation
  • Distorted sensation
  • Persistent abnormal taste


what is pathological nystagmus?

If the eyes are showing movements when they aren’t

tracking anything, this is bad and indicates brainstem

or cerebellar damage.



what is Conduction Deafness:?

what can cause it?

Interruption of the passage of sound waves through the outer and middle ear.  


  1. Accumulation of cerumen (wax buildup). 
  2. Otosclerosis: fixation of the stapes.

  3. Otitis media


what is Sensorineural Deafness?


what leads to this?

Disease of the cochlea, cochlear nerve, or central auditory connections.


  1. Presbycusis
  2. Acoustic Neuroma
  3. Meniere’s Disease
  4. Hyperacusis


What is the most common form of hearing loss?



what is Meniere's Disease?


what symptoms will you see?


what can it result in?

Increased endolymph fluid pressure which enlarges the cochlear duct.


Results in episodes of fluctuating hearing loss 

(distortions of the basilar membrane), tinnitus, 

and recurrent vertigo lasting 30 mins - 24 hrs


can result in total loss

of hearing over a period of years


what is Hyperacusis?


the  condition is most commonly caused by what?

Paralysis of the stapedius muscle, or damage to CN VII, results in hyperacusis, where loud noises are not dampened.


by exposure to loud noises/environments


how do you know a patient has conductive hearing loss with Weber's test?


how do you know a patient has sensorineural  hearing loss with Weber's test?

place tuning fork in forehead and patient will hear it louder in one side of the ear


patient will hear the sound louder in the unaffected ear.


how do you know a patient has conductive hearing loss using Rinne's test?


how do you know a patient has sensorineural hearing loss using Rinne's test?

Conductive:  BC better than AC.

Sensorineural:  Both AC and BC are depreciated.


what is Tinnitus?

‘ringing in the ears’ is the sensation of hearing ringing, buzzing, hissing, chirping, whistling, or other sounds. The noise can be intermittent or continuous, and varies in loudness


what is misphonia?

“Hatred of Sound”:  A strong negative emotional

response triggered by specific sounds.  Often

accompanied by a flight response.


Migraines typically have four stages:

  1. Prodrome: symptoms occuring 1-2 days before the attack
  2. Aura:  Visual most = Scintillating scotoma (curved blind spot)

  3. Attack: 4-72 hours

  4. Postdrome:  1-2 days, feeling drained/exhausted.


Common Migrane headaches are present at least how many days a month?

for how many months?


how many days do migranes have to occur to be considered  episodic migranes ?

more than 15 

3 months


less than 15


Coital migraines:


occur more on which sex?

the onset occurs when?

is very similar to what other disease?

what are its 3 presentations?


at orgasm

subarachnoid hemmorrhage

  1. Early = pain increases proportional to excitation

  2. Orgasmi = at orgasm

  3. late = after orgasm


Temporal arteritis occurs do to what?

what symptoms does it present with?

happens on which sex most commonly?

what is another name for this? when is it called this?

can cause what?

inflammation of large blood vessels

Tender scalp and pain with chewing


Giant cell arteritis

when it affects neck, shoulder, upper arms



what are Cluster headaches?

some symptoms are?

what helps reduce the pain?


group of headaches with pain over 1 eye, everyday at the same time in the same location

droopy eyelid, red eye

walking around



what is Hemicranium continua?

how do you treat?

similar to cluster headache but with higher frequency of attacks with shorter duration




what are Tension headaches?


what do you treat?


how do you treat chronic tension headaches?

headache caused by stress, fatigue, dehydration, bad posture, hunger






what is New Onset Persistent Daily headache?



lasts how long?

similar to chronic migraine or tension headaches but it doesnt go away




what is Complex regional pain syndrome?


what is another name for this?

Burning pain and hypersensitivity to temperature in affected areas, resulting from trauma or nerve damage.


RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy


an example of Post stroke chronic pain?

another name for this is?

what part of the body does it affect?

how does it present?

Thalamic Pain Syndrome

(Dejerine-Roussy Syndrome)

Pain affecting contralateral side of body

Occurs some time (weeks-month) after the initial infarct/damage to thalamus. numbness first, then pain



Where do Epileptic Seizures start?


what should we remember about non-epileptic seizures?


Non-epileptic seizures can be divided into what?

the brain


they dont happen by changes in brain electrical activity


Can be divided into Organic NES, and Psychogenic NES.



what are the types of epileptic seizures?


  1. Generalized seizures
  2. Generalized tonic clonic
  3. Myoclonic

  4. Absence

  5. Atonic


how do we define a generalized seizures?

Affect both hemispheres from the beginning of the seizure. 

Loss of consciousness occurs for varying periods of time. 


how do we define a Generalized tonic clonic?

‘Grand Mal’.  Tonic phase includes stiffening of the limbs, clonic phase is jerking of the limbs and face. 


how do we define a myoclonic seizure?


hwo do we define an absence seizure?

Rapid, brief contraction of body muscles.  Usually involves arms or feet/legs (both sides of body)


Periods of lack of awareness, usually lasting less than a minute.



what is another name for absence seizure?


how do we define atonic seizure?

‘Petit Mal


Abrupt loss of muscle tone.  


what is Myoclonus?


is it normal or abnormal?

Brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.





what are Types of Epileptic Seizures (Partial)?

how do we differenciate each?

what is a partial seizure?

Simple partial involves no loss of consciousness. Complex partial consciousness is lost or impaired.



partial seizure: area of seizure is limited to one region of the body.


what is Pre-eclampsia?


What is Eclampsia?

  • High blood pressure and elevated levels of protein in urine in pregnant women.
  • Tonic-clonic seizures (the eclamptic convulsion).



what is the Leading cause of maternal and peri-natal death?



what is the Treatment of Seizures?

  1. Anticonvulsant meds:  Dilantin (phenytoin), Tegretol (carbamazepine); many many more.
  2. Surgical removal of focal area (if a focal area can be identified).
  3. Diet restrictions (i.e. young children with phenylketonuria).  ‘The Ketogenic Diet’
  4. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS):  Stimulating

    electrode ‘wrapped’ around the left vagus

    nerve (less cardiac effects than the right).



what is another name for Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures?


how do you treat this type?


dissociative seizures



 do not originate from physical causes, thus are treated with therapy and often adjunct meds


5-HT depletion will cause?



what is cauda equina syndrome?

symptoms present where?

what symptoms do we see?

 compression of cauda equina

below the compression

paralysis, sensory loss, parasthesia, bladder control loss



what is Sciatica?

what nerves does it involve?

collection of symptoms. Caused by compression of sciatic nerve


L4, L5, S1, S2, S3