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Flashcards in Crosswords Deck (173):
1

Coffin lid shaped urinary crystal

Struvite

2

Urine is the same osmolarity as plasma

Isothenuria

3

Term for blood in urine

Hematuria

4

Dumbbell shaped crystal seen in rabbits and goats

Calcium carbonate

5

Waste metabolite produced from red blood cell destruction

Bilirubin

6

Frequent small amounts of urine

Pollakiuria

7

These cells are 7 µm in diameter

Erythrocytes

8

The direct measurement of specific gravity of urine

Urinometer

9

These epithelial cells are large, flat, irregularly shaped cells with abundant of cytoplasm and a small round nucleus

Squamous

10

Urine specific gravity less than 1.008

Hyposthenuric

11

To lower the light on the microscope when looking at urine, what do you lower

Condensor

12

The presence of neutrophils in urine

Pyuria

13

Under high-power these cells appear as round granular spheres about 14 µm in diameter and have a nucleus

Leukocytes

14

Uses light refraction to measure urine specific gravity

Refractometer

15

Presence of Bilirubin in the urine

Bilirubinuria

16

Dipstick test is 4+ in diabetes mellitus

Glucose

17

The protein detected on the urine dipstick test

Albumin

18

Epithelial cells originating from the bladder

Transitional

19

Frequent large volumes of urine

Polyuria

20

The term for inflammation of the bladder

Cystitis

21

Cylindrical structures with Parallel sides present in acid urine

Casts

22

Phos

Phosphorus

23

Lipa

Lipase

24

Tp

Total protein

25

Bun

Urea

26

Ca

Calcium

27

Na

Sodium

28

Alkaline phosphatase

Alkp

29

Crea

Creatinine

30

Glob

Globulin

31

Chol

Cholesterol

32

K

Potassium

33

Tbil

Total bilirubin

34

Amyl

Amylase

35

Alananine transferase

Alt

36

Alb

Albumin

37

Which color tube has the anticoagulant heparin

Green

38

Which color tube has fluoride in it and thus is able to preserve glucose

Grey

39

Which color tube has a reversible anticoagulant citrate

Blue

40

Which color tube contains EDTA

Purple

41

Which color tube contains no anticoagulant and is just in a sterile glass container

Red

42

Which color tube contains no anticoagulant and a serum separator gel

Yellow and tiger top

43

Which color tube is used to do a CBC

Purple

44

Which tube is used to obtain plasma for the vet test

Green

45

Which tube is used to perform coagulation assays

Blue

46

Which color tube has an anticoagulant that is antithrombin

Green

47

Excitement releases which hormone

Epinephrine

48

Explain how excitement can cause polycythemia

Because it triggers splenic contractions that release red blood cells

49

Plasma is made up of 80% of what

Water

50

Name two major proteins in plasma

Albumin and globulin

51

Name three electrolytes in plasma

Sodium, chloride, potassium

52

What is pus in the urine called

Pyuria

53

What is cloudiness of a solution called

Turbidity

54

What is excess Bilirubin present in the urine called

Bilirubinuria

55

The range of which the urine specific gravity equals that of the glomerular filtrate meaning no dilution or concentration has occurred

Isosthenuria

56

Decreased amounts of urine that is being produced and excreted

Oliguria

57

The weight of a solution as compared to distilled water

Specific gravity

58

Increased specific gravity of urine

Hypersthenuria

59

No urine formation or excretion

Anuria

60

Presence of the muscle protein myoglobin in the urine

Myoglobinuria

61

Accumulation of large quantities of Ketone bodies

Ketosis

62

After the centrifugation process, the solution is divided into two portions. The blank is the liquid portion of the top and the sediment is at the bottom

Supernatant

63

Substances that act as electron contributors

Reducing agent

64

Presence of ketones in the Urine

Ketonuria

65

The filtrate of plasma that passes through the glomerulus

️Glomerular filtrate

66

After the centrifugation process the top the blank is at the bottom and consists of solids

Sediment

67

Enzyme linked amino observant assay used to detect or measure antigens are antibodies

Elisa

68

Presence of abnormal levels of protein in the urine

Proteinurua

69

Presence of hemoglobin in the urine

Hemoglobinuria

70

The degree to which a substance is easily dissolved

Soluability

71

Inflammation of the urinary bladder

Cystitis

72

An instrument for measuring the concentration of solutes

Refractometer

73

Decreased urine specific gravity

Hyposthenuric

74

Evaporates rapidly

Velocity

75

Presence of intact red blood cells in the urine

Hematuria

76

What is polycythemia

Increase of erythrocytes

77

A monolayer of cells in the blood smear is best described as

Cells with no overlapping or touching

78

Decreased total protein can suggest all of the following except for

Dehydration

79

Which erythrocyte Index gives an indication of the average size of a red blood cell

MCV

80

An elevated hematocrit usually indicates which situation is present

Dehydration

81

You know that a good ballpark estimate of the patient's hemoglobin is

One third the packed cell volume

82

What is the first step of the diff quick

Fixative. The jar contains methanol

83

What is the second step of the diff quick

Eosin stain which is red

84

What is the third step of the diff quick

Methylene blue. The stain is blue

85

Is fibrinogen present in serum ?

False

86

How does a square blood smear occur

The pause was too long and forward spreading speed was too slow.

87

How do you fix a square blood smear

Take a shorter pause when backing into the drop and increase forward spreading speed

88

How do you make a half bullet blood smear

Uneven downward pressure on the spreader slide left to right

89

How do you fix a half bullet blood smear

Apply even downward pressure on the spreader slide

90

How do you make a blood smear with holes

If the slide has a dirty or greasy film a smear with holes will result. Holes may also occur if they're fat particles in the blood

91

How do you fix a blood smear with holes

Clean your slide beforehand

92

How do you get tails on the blood smear

Tells may be caused by lifting the spreader slide up at the end of the spreading motion

93

How do you fix tails on the blood smear

Don't lift us spreader side up at the end of the spreading motion

94

How do you get a long and narrow blood smear

When pushing the blood drop too soon before the blood has spread across the edge of spreader slide

95

How do you fix long and narrow blood smears

Pause longer when backing into the drop

96

How do you get a short and wide blood smear

If the spreader site is held at an angle greater than 30°

97

How do you fix a short And wide blood smear

Decrease the angle of the spreader slide

98

Which of the following is a vital stain

New methylene blue

99

Reticulocytes on a modified wrights stain example diff quick appear

Polychromatic

100

A decrease in this value is described as a microcyte

MCV

101

A decrease in this value describes hyperchromic

MCH

102

Measures the concentration of hemoglobin in the whole red blood cell volume

MCHC

103

Is measured in femtometers

MCV

104

Tells you the average weight of hemoglobin per red blood cell

MCH

105

How many days does it take to produce red blood cells in the bone marrow

6 to 8 days

106

Approximately _____ percent of the circulating blood cells of the dogs are replaced daily

1%

107

Effete red blood cells are phagocytized and metabolized by _____ of spleen, bone marrow, liver

Macrophages

108

Iron and amino acids are preserved for reutilization, and ____ is the waste product

Bilirubin

109

Where is BiliRubin excreted

Bile

110

Describe two things you need to do the week before your hematology duty week

1. Meet with tech to let them know when you'll be performing the blood draw. 2. Ensure you know how to use the machines properly for the next week

111

A variation in the staining pattern of the red blood cell. Typically appears more purple in color

Polychromic

112

A red blood cell that has a smaller diameter than what is considered normal for that species

Microcytic

113

Meaning renewal. In hematology refers to the increase production of new cells to replace the ones that have been lost.

Regenerative

114

A plasma protein that is involved in the clotting process. Under the influence of thrombin, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin.

Fibrinogen

115

Also referred to as a metarubricyte , these are immature, nuclear did red blood cells.

Nrbc

116

The simplified version of the activated partial thromboplastin time test. Assesses the intrinsic coagulation pathway

Activated clotting time

117

A condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is decreased due to low hemoglobin content or low red blood cell numbers

Anemia

118

A measurement that represents the average hemoglobin content of a red blood cell

MCH

119

The process of forming vacuoles, or a cavity within the cytoplasm of the cell

Vacuolation

120

A term used to describe the bright yellow coloring of mucous membranes or plasma sample. Associated with increased levels of bile pigments

Icteric

121

A clotting tests used to measure the activity of clotting factors V, VII, X, prothrombin, fibrinogen

Prothrombintime

122

Parasites found in the blood

Hemoparasites

123

Referring to variation in cell color

Chromasia

124

Inorganic compounds that disassociate in body fluids and carry a positive or negative

Electrolytes

125

Referring to the rupturing of red blood cells

Hemolyzed

126

Blood test and calculation that provide insight into the size of hemoglobin content of the average by blood cell of the sample

Red blood cell indices

127

Peripheral blood smear

Pbs

128

Revolutions per minute

Rpm

129

Anticoagulant used in blood collection tubes. Typically used to collect blood for coagulation studies

Sodium citrate

130

A cell displaying polychromasia

Polychromatophils

131

The formation and production of erythrocytes

Erythropoesis

132

A small piece of chromatin seem during interface of female cells. Typically seen in a drumstick shape

Barrbody

133

An enlarged platelet

Megathrombocyte

134

The portion of the cell that surrounds the nucleus. May contain various organelles

Cytoplasm

135

A group of Eosin and methylene blue stains used in hematology and cytology

Romanowskystains

136

Including test that assesses the intrinsic coagulation pathway of whole blood

Activated partial thromboplastin time

137

Referring to the presence of fatty materials or lipids in plasma or serum

Lipemic

138

The fluid portion of whole blood before coagulation

Plasma

139

A red blood cell that has decreased hemoglobin content and therefore appears pale in color

Hypochromic

140

A measurement that represents the average volume of a red blood cell

MCV

141

A aggregation of platelets visualized on the blood smear

Platelet clumping

142

Reticulocyte production index. Corrects the reticulocyte count by taking into account the presence of anemia. Gives a more accurate representation of red cell regeneration

Rpi

143

An area of a peripheral blood smear where the blood cells are evenly distributed

Monolayer

144

The fluid portion of coagulated blood. Does not contain any coagulation proteins

Serum

145

A measurement that represents the average hemoglobin concentration of a red blood cell

Mchc

146

A body within a cell that contains the chromosomes and nucleoli

Nucleus

147

Accumulation of residual endoplasmic reticulum found immature neutrophils. Associated with toxemia

Dohlebodies

148

And immature erythrocyte but no longer contains a nucleus

Reticulocyte

149

Anticoagulant used in the blood collection tubes. Sodium heparin or lithium heparin are two available forms

Heparin

150

Instrument used to count cells in a variety of fluids. Consists of a counting chamber etched with a grid covered by a coverslip.

Hemocytometer

151

Stain particles that settle out if the solution. Is a source of artifacts

Stain precipitate

152

Referring to abnormally shaped red blood cells

Poikilocytosis

153

A measure of the variation size of red blood cells

Rdw

154

The area of a peripheral blood spear where Counts are performed and morphologys are assessed

Monolayer

155

The middle layer of a packed so valuable that contains the leukocytes thrombocytosis

Buffy coat

156

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Edta

157

A stain used in blood, vaginal smears, cytology. Provides high nuclear detail. Used to identify the presence of reticulocytes a lot of blood smear

Nmb

158

When you use the unopette method on bird blood that stains eosinophils, what other avian WBC is also stained

heterophils

159

What is a heterophil equivelent to

neutrophil

160

what biochem value is used in birds to assess renal function

uric acid

161

how would you determine if a bird has responsive anemia when looking at the smear

more than 5% polychromasia

162

T/F a bird with elevated CPK and a normal AST has a liver problem

false

163

What electrolyte would be elevated in a reproductively active female bird

calcium

164

Which pancreatic enzyme is responsible for protein digestion

trypsin

165

which electrolyte is responsible for maintaining plasma oncotic pressure

sodium

166

the _______ test is considered the most sensitive indicitor of pancreatitis in cats

pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity

167

what does the X-ray film digestion test actually measure

fecal trypsin

168

what are the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors

factors I, VII, X, XII

169

What is the primary site for production of coagulation factors

liver

170

which of the following is not a coagulation factor: Factor II (prothrombin), Factor X, von Willebrand's factor, Factor VII

Von Willebrand's factor

171

What cannot be detected with mucosal bleeding time

rodenticide toxicity

172

What increases with malignancy, particularly with lymphosarcoma

calcium

173

Hyperkalemia is commonly associated with which endocrine disorder

hypoadrenocorticism