Kidneys/UA Flashcards Preview

Hematology > Kidneys/UA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidneys/UA Deck (80):
1

What are the four ways to collect specimens for urinalysis

Voided, bladder expression, catheterization, Cystocentesis

2

Why is a voided sample the best to check for Hematuria

Because you know that the blood is not your fault

3

What is the advantage of cystocentesis

Avoids any risk of urine contamination by blood or bacteria

4

Would your shipping Urine to the lab which tube do you use

Red top tube

5

What do you do if you're not going to examine the urine right away

Refrigerate it

6

What is the normal output of urine

20 to 40 mL per kilogram per day

7

What is Pollakiurua

Small amounts of urine

8

What is polyuria

Frequent urination

9

What are some common causes of abnormal turbidity

Increased cells, numerous crystals, bacteria, lipiduria, mucus, semen, fecal contamination

10

What are three ways to determine urine specific gravity

Refractometer, urinometer, reagent test strip

11

What are the five functions of the kidney

1. Water balance 2. Filter out waste 3. Acid-base balance 4. Erythropoietin 5. It involved a blood pressure maintenance

12

What is Concentrated urine

Functional kidneys: USG> 1.035 (dog) Or >1.040 (cat)

13

What is hyposthenuric

Dilute urine: USG

14

What is moderately concentrated urine

USG 1.013-1.029 (dog) or 1.034 (cat)

15

What is Isothenuria

1.007-1.012. When the urine is the same osmolarity as possible. Neither concentrated or diluted

16

What are the three rules for reagent strips

Store reagent strips and original container at room temperature. Avoid exposing reagent strips moisture, sunlight, heat. Do not touch test areas of reagent strip

17

What are the factors that may decrease the pH of urine

Fever, starvation, high-protein diet, excessive muscular activity, administration of certain drugs

18

What is increased pH due too

Alkalosis, high Fiber diets, urinary tract infection

19

Where do protein of the urine come from

Cystitis, high ph (false positive), fever, concentrated urine

20

What does glucosuria and normoglycemia mean

Suggests tubular damage:
Lepto
Antifreeze
Fanconi syndrome

21

Why are ketones formed

Starvation, peak lactation in dairy cattle, diabetes mellitus

22

What do ketones in the body cause

Central nervous system depression and acidosis.

23

What about bilirubin in cats on urine dipstick

Should always be negative. Bilirubinemia in cats is pathologic

24

When do we see Bilirubinuria

Increased destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), liver disease, obstruction of bile flow from the liver, clinical jaundice

25

How do you change The microscope to see urine

Lower the condenser and closedown the substage iris diaphragm

26

For the urinalysis what would you see in low magnification

Casts, large crystals, debris, parasitic ova

27

What would you see under high magnification in a urinalysis

Leukocytes, erythrocytes, epithelial cells, far droplets, small crystals, sperm

28

How big are red blood cells in the microscope

7um

29

What happens to red blood cells when you have a high specific gravity

The red blood cells become crenated

30

What happens to red blood cells in urine with low specific gravity

The cells may be lysed and not visible

31

Describe fat droplets

Found in normal dog and cat sediments. Focus up and down and you could visualize their perfectly round appearance

32

What do increased numbers of transitional epithelial cells indicate

Urinary tract infections

33

Where are casts formed

In the lumen of the distal and collecting tubules

34

Describe Casts

Cylindrical structures with Parallel sides present an acid urine

35

Normal casts

Hyaline casts

36

What are the abnormal casts

Granular casts
Epithelial casts
Leukocyte casts
Erythrocytes casts
Waxy casts
Fatty casts

37

When do you see epithelial cell casts

Acute nephritis
Degradation of renal epithelium

38

When do you see a leukocyte cast

Pyelonephritis

39

When do you see a waxy cast

Severe degeneration of renal tubules

40

When do you see a fatty cast

In cats with renal disease

41

When do you see a struvites

In basic urine

42

When do you see amorphous crystals

In acidic urine

43

When do you see calcium carbonate crystals

In horses,
Or rabbits and goats

44

When do you see ammonium biurate crystals

In liver disease

45

When do you see calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals

In acidic urine

46

When do you see calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals

AntifreeZe poisoning

47

When do you see uric acid crystals

Associated with dalmatians

48

When do you see leucine or tyrosine crystals

Liver disease

49

When do you see Cystine crystals

Renal tubular dysfunction

50

What happens if there's too much alcohol at the venipuncture site

Lyse the red blood cells

51

What happens if you put too much pressure with the syringe

Collapse the vein

52

What hormone is released with excitement

Epinephrine

53

What hormone is released with stress

Cortisol

54

What Effect does epinephrine have on red blood cells

Increase red blood cells due to splenic contractions

55

What does cortisol do to white blood cell

Double the neutrophils or in cats sometimes it's lymphocytes

56

Describe what epinephrine does to the body

Increases white blood cells, red blood cells, physiologic neutrophils, polycythemia

57

What affect does cortisol have on the body

Increased neutrophils,
decrease eosinophils,
increased lymphocytes

58

What does the coagulant EDTA do

Binds calcium

59

What is plasma made up of

90% water, 10% dissolved constituents: proteins, electrolytes etc

60

What is serum made up of

It is plasma minus fibrinogen and clotting proteins

61

How does heparin work

It has antithrombin

62

What can heparin cause

Clumping of wbc

63

What happens if you underfill the EDTA container

It can dilute blood

64

What do grey top tubes do

Preserve glucose levels

65

What are sodium citrate tubes used for

It is reversible anticoagulant and these tubes are used for coagulation assays. Works by binding calcium

66

What happens to blood when it's in the refrigerator

The more Clumped platelets appear

67

How much sample volume do you need

Enough to run a biochem three times

68

What does a complete blood cell count do

Red blood cell, PCV, total protein, blood differential, reticulocyte, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell indices

69

Hematocrit tubes should be within what percentage of each other

2%

70

What happens the pact cell volume when the animal is dehydrated

Decreased plasma increase total protein

71

What percent of plasma is protein

Five and 10%

72

What does albumin do

Retains blood pressure

73

What is a normal plasma protein for adult mammals

6-8 gm/dl

74

What is the normal plasma protein for pediatric

4-6gm/dl due to decreased antibodies

75

What is a decreased total protein do to

Protein losing enteropathy, chronic blood loss, liver disease, starvation

76

What is elevated total protein do to

Dehydration

77

When you're dehydrated what happens

Increase in globulin

78

What percentage of total protein is albumin

35 to 50%. Losses occur in kidney disease

79

How will the ratio change with chronic inflammation and the cat or dog

Increased globulin and decreased ratio

80

How do you estimate white blood cell count

10 times objective equals average number for field times 100