Rbc Flashcards Preview

Hematology > Rbc > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rbc Deck (85):
1

How much hemaglobin is in a rbc

30%

2

What is mcv

Mean corpuscular volume

3

What is mch

Mean corpuscular Hb

4

What is mchc

Mean corpuscular Hb concentration

5

What is normocytic

A normal sized rbc

6

What is microcytic

An abnormally small rbc

7

What is macrocytic

An abnormally large rbc

8

What is normochromic

Normal coloured rbc

9

What is hypochromic

Light coloured rbc

10

What is hyperchromic

An abnormally dark rbc

11

How many days does it take for erythrocytes to be made in bone marrow

6-8 days

12

Where does hematopoeisis occur

Liver, spleen, thymus, red bone marrow

13

What is erythropoiesis

The production of erythrocytes

14

What is Leukopoiesis

The production of leukocytes

15

What is thrombopoiesis

Production of platelets

16

What is the rbc schedule

Rubriblast ➡️ prorubricyte ➡️ rubricyte➡️ metarubricyte➡️ reticulocyte ➡️ mature rbc

17

What happens to cell size with rbc maturation

Cell size decreases

18

What happens to the ️nucleus in rbc maturation

Gets darker and more granular and then decreases

19

What happens to the cytoplasm in rbc

Goes from blue to light pink

20

How much water is in a rbc

60%

21

How long does the rbc live

100 days

22

What percentage of rbc die per day

1%

23

What is the waste product of rbc distruction

Bilirubin

24

What is poikilocytosis

Unusually shaped rbc

25

When does Rouleaux occur

Can be an artifact if blood is held too long or has been refrigerated

26

What is agglutination mean

Due to formation of immune complexes that attach to rbc. Occurs in immune mediated disorders

27

How do you differentiate Rouleaux from agglutination

Put saline on a drop of blood, Rouleaux will disperse

28

What are hyperchromatic cells

Have a darker stain than normal cells

29

Why does a cytoplasm stain blue

Due to the endoplasmic reticulum

30

What is anisocytosis

Variation of rbc siZe

31

Is new methylene blue stain a vital stain

Yes

32

What is a Heinz body

Denatured Hb

33

What do spherocytes associated with

Hemolytic anemia due to immune disease. It has a smiley face

34

What are echinocytes

Often an artifact. Crenated rbc

35

What are acanthocytes

Red cells with 2-10 blunt elongated finger like surface projections

36

What are spherocytes

Small round red cells that stain intensely and lack central pallor

37

What are Elliptocytes

Oval erythrocytes

38

What are dacrocytes

Tear drop shaped erythrocytes

39

What are codocytes

Stomatocytes and target cells. Shaped erythrocytes and are due to rbc membrane change

40

What are acanthocytes associated with

Hemangiosarcoma

41

Why do acanthocytes occur

Due to abnormal accumulation of lipids within the rbc membrane.

42

What are schistocytes

Fragmented rbc

43

What are shistocytes

Red blood cell fragments due to mechanical damage

44

What are keratocytes

A helmet blister cell- another type of fragmented rbc

45

Are schistocytes clinically relevant?

Yes

46

What is a Howell jolly body

Remnant of a ️nucleus

47

What is basophilic stippling associated with

Seen in lead poisoning

48

Are target cells or stomatcytes significant if there is no anemia

Yea

49

What is a stomatocyte

Red blood cell membrane defect

50

What are target cells and what are their associated with

Excess cell membrane. Associated with liver disease

51

When are codocytes significant

Finding codocytes in the absence of polychromasia is significant, it means that excess lipid membrane is present and is an abnormality

52

What are Dacrocytes

Failure of the red blood cell to return to its original shape after squeezing through capillaries. Associated with bone marrow disorders

53

What are six blood parasites that can be seen in a blood smear

Dirofilaria Immitis
Hemobartinella
Ehrlichia
Anaplasma
Cytauxzoon
Babesia

54

What is anemia

Decreased red cell mass

55

How do you classify anemia

Regenerative or Non regenerative based on bone marrow response

56

What are the three general causes of anemia

Decreased production, increased destruction, blood loss

57

Given example of decreased production

Bone marrow problems, cancer, renal failure

58

Given example of increased destruction

Macrophages kill red blood cells. Associated with hemolytic anemia

59

Given example of blood loss

Parasites or bodily injury

60

Describe what happens with Parvo or panleukopenia

White blood cell destruction destruction of rapidly dividing cells in the gastrointestinal tract

61

How could you tell by looking at peripheral blood spear if anemia is responsive

The presence of reticulocytes

62

Describe body changes in blood loss or hemorrhage

Bone marrow is still functional. Responsive anemia. No jaundice or increase BiliRubin. Plasma proteins are decreased

63

How do you know based on a blood test that you have hemolytic anemia

you have an increase in BiliRubin. But normal plasma protein. Plus reticulocytes on a blood smear

64

What are the two types of Hemolysis

Intravascular or extravascular

65

Describe extra vascular hemolysis

Involves the destruction and removal of damaged red blood cells by the microphages of the spleen and liver. Results in excess production of BiliRuben = jaundice

66

When do you see hemoglobinemia or hemoglobinuria

Only in severe cases of intravascular hemolysis

67

When do you see icterus

In either intravascular or extravascular hemolytic anemia due to the excess production of BiliRuben.

68

Describe The pathogenesis of immune mediated hemolytic anemia

Red blood cells become coated with anti-bodies as they circulate. Antibody coated red blood cells either Lyses intravascularly or removed by macrophages in the liver and spleen. You will see a red blood cell agglutination

69

Why does agglutination occur

What antibodies cause bridging between adjacent red blood cells

70

What are four conditions which can cause immune mediated hemolytic anemia

Heartworm disease, lymphoma, lupus, drug-induced immune mediated Hemolysis

71

What is the morphologic hallmark of immune mediated hemolytic anemia

A significant number of Spherocytes

72

What Can non regenerative anemia be caused by

Result of either ineffective erythropoiesis (maturation defect anemia) or reduced production of red blood cells (hypoproliferative anemia)

73

What are some causes of non responsive anemia

Bone marrow damage
Reduced erythropoetin (renal failure)
Bone marrow invasion by neoplastic cells

74

What is the most common cause of nonresponsive anemia

Chronic disease

75

Describe normal bone marrow ratios in adult animals

50% nucleated cells and 50% fat cells

76

Describe the bone marrow ratio in juvenile mammals

25% fat

77

Describe the bone marrow ratio in geriatric mammals

75% fat

78

What is polycythemia

Defined as increased circulating red blood cell mass. Values for PCV, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count are higher than reference ranges

79

What can cause high pcv

High altitudes
Brachycephalic breeds

80

What is relative polycythemia

Decrease in plasma volume (dehydration) ⬆️ circulating rbc

81

What are the signs of relative polycythemia on a blood test

Increase in pcv and total protein.

82

What is transient polycythemia

Caused by splenic contractions with the release of epinephrin

83

How do you know if it is a transient polycythemia based on the blood test

Increase pcv, normal hydration and normal tp

84

What is absolute polycythemia

An absolute increase of circulating rbc as a result of increased bone marrow production.

85

What are the clinical findings in absolute polycythemia

Lethargy, low exercise tolerance, behavioural change, brick red/cyanotic mm, sneezing, bilateral epistaxis, cardiopulmonary impairment