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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (27):

What is the function of electrolytes

Maintenance of water balance
Fluid osmotic pressure ( Na)
Muscular and nerve function (Ca)


List some electrolytes

Inorganic phosphorus


What is the function of calcium in the blood

99% is in the bone 1% ionized in blood
Maintenance of neuromuscular excitability and tone ( muscle contraction)
Co-enzyme in Blood coagulation and other enzyme
It is mainly extra cellular
Inverse relationship with Phosphorus


What can elevations of calcium mean and cause

Elevations of Ca cancer ( lymphoma)- paraneoplastic syndrome

Hypercalcemia can cause PUPD

Hypocalcemia eclampsia


What happens if there is a Ca:P imbalance in the diet

If there is a Ca:P imbalance in the diet

All meat diet  XS phosphorus  secondary nutritional or renal hyperparathyroidism

Low Ca causes parathyroid gland to produce xs PTH


Describe the function of phosphorus in the body

80% is in Bone
Energy storage and release
In nucleic acids and phospholipids
Most phosphorus in whole blood is on RBC s organic phosphorus
Hemolyzed samples will have a falsely elevated inorganic phosphorus concentration


What does elevated phosphorus usually mean

Elevation is often seen with kidney failure


Describe the function of sodium in the body

major cation of plasma and interstitial, or extracellular, fluid.
NB in water distribution and body fluid osmotic pressure
Aldosterone (adrenal gland) controls levels of Na and K


What is hypernatremia

In the kidney, sodium is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed back into the body through the tubules in exchange, as needed, for hydrogen ions.

In this manner, sodium plays a vital role in pH regulation


When do you see hyponatremia



What is the function of potassium in the body

Needed for normal muscular function,
cardiac function,
nerve impulse transmission, and carbohydrate metabolism


When do you see hyperkalemia

Addison’s dse, blocked cats- hyperkalemia


What are the clinical signs of hyperkalemia

Clin signs- weakness, collapse, arrhythmias, bradycardia


When do you see hypokalemia

inadequate intake, alkalosis, or fluid loss resulting from vomiting or diarrhea.

Cats that are PUPD
Animals on IV fluids especially cats


What are the clinical signs of hypokalemia

ventroflexion, weakness, depression


Describe the effects of hypokalemia on the body

The main effect of severe hypokalemia is generalized muscle weakness.
cats have difficulty in getting up and walking, and may appear almost "drunk" because of their weakness.
A common and characteristic sign of the muscle weakness is the inability to raise the head into a normal position, so that the head is held down..


What is the function of magnesium in the body

Magnesium is the fourth most common cation the body and the second most common intracellular cation
In all body tissues-- 50% in bones
Magnesium activates enzymes
required for many enzyme-based reactions
Imbalance of the magnesium calcium ratio can result in muscular tetany


What is the function of chloride in the body

predominant extracellular anion.
maintenance of water distribution, osmotic pressure, and the normal anion/cation ratio
relationship to sodium and bicarbonate levels
Hyperchloremia /Hypochloremia


What is the function of bicarbonate in the body

Bicarbonate is the second most common anion of plasma.
pH balance
Bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system
aids in transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
Arterial blood-lithium heparin-chilled for bicarbonate determinations


What is the function of lactate in the body

Lactate concentration in blood is a measure of anaerobic metabolism, which occurs when cells are not getting enough oxygen to support normal aerobic energy production.
An elevated lactate level is most commonly caused by a decrease in blood flow to the cells, systemically or locally.


What does the anion gap measure

The Anion Gap measures the difference between the amount of the major cations and anions


What is the focal occult blood test done for

To determine small amounts of blood loss

Dramatic bleed evident as black feces (melena) or frank fecal blood (hematochezia)

meat free diet for 3 days before the test


What is the focal proteolytic activity test done for

the evaluation of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in cats and other species

X-ray film


Describe how the lipid absorption test is done

12 hour fast
Take blood- no lipemia
Give corn oil- take blood every hour look for lipemia

Repeat test with digested corn oil to help differrerentiate b/n maldigestion /malabsorption


What is the NT-proBNP test used for

NT-proBNP-- USE AS A screening test
For dogs with murmurs etc


What is the cardiac toponin 1 test

Marker of cardiac myocyte injury

Test is done on Serum


What is the mucin clot test used for

Synovial fluid forms a mucin clot when added to acetic acid

Eveluate hyaluronic acid in joint