Blood Typing in Cats/Dogs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Typing in Cats/Dogs Deck (68):

What is a Major Crossmatch

Donor RBCs and recipient serum or Plasma


What does a major crossmatch ask

Asks : Does the recipient have antibodies to the Donor’s RBCs


What is a Minor Crossmatch

Donor serum + recipient RBCs


What does a minor crossmatch ask

Asks: Does the donor have antibodies to recipient RBCs


What are the feline blood types

Type A, Type B and Type AB


What blood type do most felines have

Most cats possess the A antigen,
one-third of those have naturally occurring, low-titer, anti-B antibody
**Type B cats all have a naturally occurring, highly tittered anti-A antibody ***
Type AB cats are rare


Why are blood type AB cats rare

Type AB cats are rare and since such cats have both A and B antigens on the erythrocyte membrane, they do not have or develop anti-A or anti-B antibodies


When type AB cats get a blood transfusion, which type do you give them

It is recommended to give them type A blood


What blood type are the expensive breeds (persian, scottish fold etc)



What percentage of cats are type A



What happens when type B cats get transfused with type A blood

Cats with B erythrocytes exhibit an immediate and catastrophic systemic anaphylactic reaction when transfused with Type A blood because of their natural high-titered anti-A antibody
A severe reaction can occur with as little as 1 ml of blood !!


What happens when a type A gets transfused with type B blood.

1/3 of cats with A erythrocytes will have natural low-tittered anti-B antibody will exhibit only a mild reaction when transfused with the B blood (not fatal)
Even if they do not have antibodies the transfused erythrocytes have a short life span ( only 7-10 days).
In a good transfusion – transfused blood will last approximately 21 days


Type A gets what type in a blood transfusion?
Type B gets what type in a blood transfusion?

Type A cats get type A blood

Type B cats get type B blood


What is the Mik antigen

newly Discovered Mik antigen
This was discovered when there was incompatible cross-match done on cats of the same blood type
There are naturally occurring allo antibodies in MiK negative Cats
The vast majority of Cats are Mik positive


What is Neonatal isoerythrolysis

Type A kittens resulting from a mating of a Type B queen with a Type A male
maternal anti- A antibody occurs in the colostrum where it can be absorbed by the newborn kitten
Causes hemalytic anemia in kitten
Can be a cause of Fading Kitten Syndrome


How do you prevent isoerythrolysis

Breeders can blood type cats before mating

Blood typing can be done on blood from the umbilicus as kittens at birth (very convenient with the Alvedia system)
Remove Type A kitten if the Queen is Type B


What are the tests for blood typing

1. Rapidvet



What is on the feline rapid vet H

Lyophylized antisera (antibody) on the test card
This is an agglutination test


Why does auto agglutination happen in cats

A certain number of feline patients exhibit auto-agglutination of varying degrees due to serum factors that cause agglutination of the patient's own red cells


What do you do if you have auto agglutination.

If you have autoagglutination wash the remaining red cells with saline


What do you do if an animals pcv is less than 10

Centrifuge the blood sample on the urine setting of the centrifuge and remove supernatant(plasma) by pipette so that the hematocrit is increased to >15.


What is the rapid vet typing system based on

immuno-chromatographic (lateral flow) technology 


What type of blood sample do you need for the rapid vet typing system

Need EDTA blood sample


What is the pro of the alvedia blood typing system

Also uses immune chromatography

It will not be affected by a low PCV
It will not be affected by auto agglutination
Sample can be taken directly from umbilicus of kitten


What is the primary blood type in dogs

DEA 1.1 is the primary lytic factor

DEA 1.1  most common serious reactions

Dogs do not have naturally occuring allo antibodies


what happens when a sensitized DEA 1.1 –ve dog gets +ve blood .

have a serious anaphylactic reaction


What can cause neonatal isoerythrolysis

DEA 1 negative breeding bitches have been either transfused with positive blood or have been repeatedly bred to DEA 1.1 positive sires.
DEA 1 positive Puppies may develop neonatal isoerythrolysis after nursing due to the development of anti-DEA 1 antibodies in the colostrum.


When will a blood transfusion reaction occur in a dog

In dogs a transfusion reaction will not happen at the first transfusion, since dogs do not have naturally occurring antibodies
A reaction will happen when you transfuse DEA 1.1 positive blood into a sensitized negative dog
Or any second transfusion- there may be other antibodies that have developed that we do not know about


In an accute transfusion, when does the reaction occur and how long do the RBC last in the blood

Immediate. In an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, the lifespan of incompatible transfused erythrocytes ranges from minutes to 12 hours.


How long does it take for a dog to develop antibodies to an incompatible blood type ?

After 4 days the recipient will have made Antibodies to the Donor cells

You must always do a cross match test before a second transfusion, even if you are transfusing with blood from the same donor


How do you perform a feline major and minor crossmatch , with the test slide method

Donor RBCs + Recipient Plasma
prepare three microscope slides.
Major cross-match; two drops of Recipient Plasma + one drop of Donor RBCs
Minor cross-match; two drops of Donor Plasma + one drop of Recipient RBCs on Minor cross-match
Recipient control. and two drops of Recipient Plasma + one drop of Recipient RBCs
Mix each slide gently back and forth with rocking motion and examine for several mins, looking for hemagglutination.

The reaction will be obvious to the naked eye, and the recipient control slide should be negative.


How do you perform a cross match test in dogs

You can not use the slide test for Dogs
The dog reaction is more subtle

MUST DO a tube agglutination test

Rapidvet and Alvedia also make cross match kits


What is step 1 of the tube agglutination test

Donor Blood- either in EDTA or citrate
Step 1- Make packed RBCs
Spin blood on the urine setting (1000g)- 10 min
Remove plasma with a pipette ( label plasma)


What is step 2 of the tube agglutination test

Step 2- Wash RBCs
0.2ml of pRBC with 5 ml Saline
Centrifuge on urine setting 2 minutes
Decant supernatant, repeat this wash 2 more time- supernatant should be clear


What is step 3 of the tube agglutination test

Step 3- Set up Major Cross Match
Label 2 tubes w Donor Name and Major and 2 tubes with Donor Name and Control test
In each tube put 0.2ml of washed RBCs
In the 2 Major cross match tubes put 0.2ml of recipient serum (preferred)/ plasma
In the 2 control tubes – put 0.2ml donors plasma


What is step 4 and 5 of the tube agglutination test

Step 4 - Incubate 15 min at 25o +37o C

Step 5- Centrifuge all tubes at urine setting for 2 minutes


What does hemolysis of the supernatant of the tube agglutination test mean

Any hemolysis of the supernatant indicates crossmatch incompatibility.

Next Resuspend pellet- Look for Agglutination

Next put a drop on Microscope slide and look for agglutination


What are good attributes of a blood donor

Good Temeperment
between 1 and 8 years of age.
Male or female (nulliparous)
weigh at least 50 pounds so that human blood collection bags (450-ml capacity) may be used.
no history of previous blood transfusions
Up to date vaccination- but not within 1 month of transfusion


How often can a dog donate blood and what amount

A maximum of 22 mL/kg of blood may be donated every 21 to 28 days;

Usually 3 to 4 times a year


What are the feline blood donor attributes needed

at least 10 pounds in weight.
A maximum of 15 mL/kg can be drawn every 4 weeks; however, one donation every 3 - 4 months may be preferable to the owner
Requires sedation
Indoor Cat Prefered
 annual CBC + biochemical recommended
Negative for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, dirofilariasis and hemobartnellosis


What is special about feline blood donation

Cats require sedation
Require special bags, can not use the human bags


When would you use heparin for blood collection

Heparin: prevents coagulation by inactivating thrombin.
has no preservative qualities, so blood collected in heparin must be used within 24 hours.
Can be used in an emergency


Can you use EDTA for blood collection

EDTA is NEVER used for collection of blood for transfusion  TOXIC.


Describe sodium citrate when used in blood collection

safe, readily metabolized, (reversible)
can be used alone when storage of blood or red cells will not be required or when the plasma will be removed shortly after collection and the red cells either returned to the donor or discarded.


What preseveratives can you add to extend the life of the red blood cells

glucose (dextrose) -->as an energy source


What are CPDA-1 or CPD

Citrate based anticoagulants that are used in blood banking are CPDA-1, CPD,
glucose (dextrose) -->as an energy source


Describe RBC 24hr after transfusion

At least 75% of the transfused red cells must be found in circulation 24 hours after transfusion.
It is equally important that red cells maintain their ability to bind and release oxygen when transfused.


What is the shelf life of CPDA-1

35 days


What are RCA's

(RCAS): Red cell additive solutions
are added back to the red blood cells after the plasma is removed from the whole blood and extend the storage life of RBCs up to 42 days.
eg. Adesol


If blood has added RCAs, whats the shelf life

Extends the storage life of RBCs up to 42 days.
eg. Adesol


What are the components of blood

Red Blood Cells
Clotting Factors ( hemophilia, vWF, rodenticide poisoning
WBCs are of no Use


What are the different types of donated RBC manifestations

Whole Blood
Red Blood Cell concentrate
Platelet rich plasma
Fresh Frozen plasma (


Why do we use components in our blood transfusions

Better medicine- give the animal exactly what he needs-- less side effects
Eg- volume overload
Less waste- Frozen plasma – 2 yrs +
One blood collection can save 2 or 3 lives


What are some reasons why an animal might need a transfusion

Blood loss
Traumatic blood loss/ surgery
Cx renal failure
Albumin ( hypoproteinemic)
Globulin ( orphan /Fading puppy- Parvo)
Rodenticide poisoning
Bleeding disorder
Hemophilia A
Animal with DIC
Animal in need of platelets


Describe the making of Platelet concentrated plasma

Platelet concentrate is made from 450 ml of whole blood collected in the anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (CPDA-1).
The buffy coat layer, including white cells and platelets, is removed within 6 hours of collection.


What is the shelf life of platelet concentrated plasma

Shelf life is 7 days from collection when stored at room temperature on a rocking surface.


How do you make frozen plasma

Frozen Plasma is made from whole blood collected in the anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (CPDA-1).
Plasma is removed within 5 days of the expiration date of the whole blood and frozen.


What is the shelf life of frozen plasma

Shelf life is two (2) years from collection date when stored frozen.


What does frozen plasma contain

Contains all plasma proteins and coagulation factors but not Factor VIII ( hemophilia) and vWF
Excellent source of oncotic proteins, immunoglobulins, lipids and electrolytes.


When do you do a frozen plasma transfusion

used: Orphaned neonate/failing puppy syndrome. /parvo


What is fresh frozen plasma

Plasma is removed and frozen very shortly after collection
within 8 hours of collection and frozen.


What is the shelf life of fresh frozen plasma

Shelf life is 1 year from collection when stored frozen.


What is cryoprecipitate

Cryoprecipitate is obtained from Fresh Frozen Plasma that has been slowly thawed and the supernatant plasma removed.
Concentration of factor V, factor VIII, fibrinogen, vWB factor.


What is the shelf life of cryoprecipitate

Store in freezer for 1 year.
Shelf life is 1 year from collection date when stored in the freezer.


What is the cryosupernatant

Contains all coagulation factors but with reduced factor VIII and factor V


What is the shelf life of cryosupernatant

Store in freezer  for 2 years.


Why do you use cryosupernatant

Severe burns
Rodenticide poisoning (e.g. Warfarin)
Passive immunity (e.g. parvovirus, orphaned neonates)

Protein replacement –hypoproteinemia or hypoalbuminemia.


How long are red blood cells viable for

The red cells are viable for 35 -42days from collection when stored at 2-6º C.
Red cell concentrate may remain at room temperature for up to 6 hours, then must be discarded