Flashcards in Blood Typing in Cats/Dogs Deck (68):
What is a Major Crossmatch
Donor RBCs and recipient serum or Plasma
What does a major crossmatch ask
Asks : Does the recipient have antibodies to the Donor’s RBCs
What is a Minor Crossmatch
Donor serum + recipient RBCs
What does a minor crossmatch ask
Asks: Does the donor have antibodies to recipient RBCs
What are the feline blood types
Type A, Type B and Type AB
What blood type do most felines have
Most cats possess the A antigen,
one-third of those have naturally occurring, low-titer, anti-B antibody
**Type B cats all have a naturally occurring, highly tittered anti-A antibody ***
Type AB cats are rare
Why are blood type AB cats rare
Type AB cats are rare and since such cats have both A and B antigens on the erythrocyte membrane, they do not have or develop anti-A or anti-B antibodies
When type AB cats get a blood transfusion, which type do you give them
It is recommended to give them type A blood
What blood type are the expensive breeds (persian, scottish fold etc)
What percentage of cats are type A
What happens when type B cats get transfused with type A blood
Cats with B erythrocytes exhibit an immediate and catastrophic systemic anaphylactic reaction when transfused with Type A blood because of their natural high-titered anti-A antibody
A severe reaction can occur with as little as 1 ml of blood !!
What happens when a type A gets transfused with type B blood.
1/3 of cats with A erythrocytes will have natural low-tittered anti-B antibody will exhibit only a mild reaction when transfused with the B blood (not fatal)
Even if they do not have antibodies the transfused erythrocytes have a short life span ( only 7-10 days).
In a good transfusion – transfused blood will last approximately 21 days
Type A gets what type in a blood transfusion?
Type B gets what type in a blood transfusion?
Type A cats get type A blood
Type B cats get type B blood
What is the Mik antigen
newly Discovered Mik antigen
This was discovered when there was incompatible cross-match done on cats of the same blood type
There are naturally occurring allo antibodies in MiK negative Cats
The vast majority of Cats are Mik positive
Always DO CROSSMATCH TEST
What is Neonatal isoerythrolysis
Type A kittens resulting from a mating of a Type B queen with a Type A male
maternal anti- A antibody occurs in the colostrum where it can be absorbed by the newborn kitten
Causes hemalytic anemia in kitten
Can be a cause of Fading Kitten Syndrome
How do you prevent isoerythrolysis
Breeders can blood type cats before mating
Blood typing can be done on blood from the umbilicus as kittens at birth (very convenient with the Alvedia system)
Remove Type A kitten if the Queen is Type B
What are the tests for blood typing
What is on the feline rapid vet H
Lyophylized antisera (antibody) on the test card
This is an agglutination test
Why does auto agglutination happen in cats
A certain number of feline patients exhibit auto-agglutination of varying degrees due to serum factors that cause agglutination of the patient's own red cells
What do you do if you have auto agglutination.
If you have autoagglutination wash the remaining red cells with saline
What do you do if an animals pcv is less than 10
Centrifuge the blood sample on the urine setting of the centrifuge and remove supernatant(plasma) by pipette so that the hematocrit is increased to >15.
What is the rapid vet typing system based on
immuno-chromatographic (lateral flow) technology
What type of blood sample do you need for the rapid vet typing system
Need EDTA blood sample
What is the pro of the alvedia blood typing system
Also uses immune chromatography
It will not be affected by a low PCV
It will not be affected by auto agglutination
Sample can be taken directly from umbilicus of kitten
What is the primary blood type in dogs
DEA 1.1 is the primary lytic factor
DEA 1.1 most common serious reactions
Dogs do not have naturally occuring allo antibodies
what happens when a sensitized DEA 1.1 –ve dog gets +ve blood .
have a serious anaphylactic reaction
What can cause neonatal isoerythrolysis
DEA 1 negative breeding bitches have been either transfused with positive blood or have been repeatedly bred to DEA 1.1 positive sires.
DEA 1 positive Puppies may develop neonatal isoerythrolysis after nursing due to the development of anti-DEA 1 antibodies in the colostrum.
When will a blood transfusion reaction occur in a dog
In dogs a transfusion reaction will not happen at the first transfusion, since dogs do not have naturally occurring antibodies
A reaction will happen when you transfuse DEA 1.1 positive blood into a sensitized negative dog
Or any second transfusion- there may be other antibodies that have developed that we do not know about
In an accute transfusion, when does the reaction occur and how long do the RBC last in the blood
Immediate. In an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, the lifespan of incompatible transfused erythrocytes ranges from minutes to 12 hours.
How long does it take for a dog to develop antibodies to an incompatible blood type ?
After 4 days the recipient will have made Antibodies to the Donor cells
You must always do a cross match test before a second transfusion, even if you are transfusing with blood from the same donor
How do you perform a feline major and minor crossmatch , with the test slide method
Donor RBCs + Recipient Plasma
prepare three microscope slides.
Major cross-match; two drops of Recipient Plasma + one drop of Donor RBCs
Minor cross-match; two drops of Donor Plasma + one drop of Recipient RBCs on Minor cross-match
Recipient control. and two drops of Recipient Plasma + one drop of Recipient RBCs
Mix each slide gently back and forth with rocking motion and examine for several mins, looking for hemagglutination.
The reaction will be obvious to the naked eye, and the recipient control slide should be negative.
How do you perform a cross match test in dogs
You can not use the slide test for Dogs
The dog reaction is more subtle
MUST DO a tube agglutination test
Rapidvet and Alvedia also make cross match kits
What is step 1 of the tube agglutination test
Donor Blood- either in EDTA or citrate
Step 1- Make packed RBCs
Spin blood on the urine setting (1000g)- 10 min
Remove plasma with a pipette ( label plasma)
What is step 2 of the tube agglutination test
Step 2- Wash RBCs
0.2ml of pRBC with 5 ml Saline
Centrifuge on urine setting 2 minutes
Decant supernatant, repeat this wash 2 more time- supernatant should be clear
What is step 3 of the tube agglutination test
Step 3- Set up Major Cross Match
Label 2 tubes w Donor Name and Major and 2 tubes with Donor Name and Control test
In each tube put 0.2ml of washed RBCs
In the 2 Major cross match tubes put 0.2ml of recipient serum (preferred)/ plasma
In the 2 control tubes – put 0.2ml donors plasma
What is step 4 and 5 of the tube agglutination test
Step 4 - Incubate 15 min at 25o +37o C
Step 5- Centrifuge all tubes at urine setting for 2 minutes
What does hemolysis of the supernatant of the tube agglutination test mean
Any hemolysis of the supernatant indicates crossmatch incompatibility.
Next Resuspend pellet- Look for Agglutination
Next put a drop on Microscope slide and look for agglutination
What are good attributes of a blood donor
between 1 and 8 years of age.
Male or female (nulliparous)
weigh at least 50 pounds so that human blood collection bags (450-ml capacity) may be used.
no history of previous blood transfusions
Up to date vaccination- but not within 1 month of transfusion
How often can a dog donate blood and what amount
A maximum of 22 mL/kg of blood may be donated every 21 to 28 days;
Usually 3 to 4 times a year
What are the feline blood donor attributes needed
at least 10 pounds in weight.
A maximum of 15 mL/kg can be drawn every 4 weeks; however, one donation every 3 - 4 months may be preferable to the owner
Indoor Cat Prefered
annual CBC + biochemical recommended
Negative for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, dirofilariasis and hemobartnellosis
What is special about feline blood donation
Cats require sedation
Require special bags, can not use the human bags
When would you use heparin for blood collection
Heparin: prevents coagulation by inactivating thrombin.
has no preservative qualities, so blood collected in heparin must be used within 24 hours.
Can be used in an emergency
Can you use EDTA for blood collection
EDTA is NEVER used for collection of blood for transfusion TOXIC.
Describe sodium citrate when used in blood collection
safe, readily metabolized, (reversible)
can be used alone when storage of blood or red cells will not be required or when the plasma will be removed shortly after collection and the red cells either returned to the donor or discarded.
What preseveratives can you add to extend the life of the red blood cells
glucose (dextrose) -->as an energy source
What are CPDA-1 or CPD
Citrate based anticoagulants that are used in blood banking are CPDA-1, CPD,
glucose (dextrose) -->as an energy source
Describe RBC 24hr after transfusion
At least 75% of the transfused red cells must be found in circulation 24 hours after transfusion.
It is equally important that red cells maintain their ability to bind and release oxygen when transfused.
What is the shelf life of CPDA-1
What are RCA's
(RCAS): Red cell additive solutions
are added back to the red blood cells after the plasma is removed from the whole blood and extend the storage life of RBCs up to 42 days.
If blood has added RCAs, whats the shelf life
Extends the storage life of RBCs up to 42 days.
What are the components of blood
Red Blood Cells
Clotting Factors ( hemophilia, vWF, rodenticide poisoning
WBCs are of no Use
What are the different types of donated RBC manifestations
Red Blood Cell concentrate
Platelet rich plasma
Fresh Frozen plasma (
Why do we use components in our blood transfusions
Better medicine- give the animal exactly what he needs-- less side effects
Eg- volume overload
Less waste- Frozen plasma – 2 yrs +
One blood collection can save 2 or 3 lives
What are some reasons why an animal might need a transfusion
Traumatic blood loss/ surgery
Cx renal failure
Albumin ( hypoproteinemic)
Globulin ( orphan /Fading puppy- Parvo)
Animal with DIC
Animal in need of platelets
Describe the making of Platelet concentrated plasma
Platelet concentrate is made from 450 ml of whole blood collected in the anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (CPDA-1).
The buffy coat layer, including white cells and platelets, is removed within 6 hours of collection.
What is the shelf life of platelet concentrated plasma
Shelf life is 7 days from collection when stored at room temperature on a rocking surface.
How do you make frozen plasma
Frozen Plasma is made from whole blood collected in the anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (CPDA-1).
Plasma is removed within 5 days of the expiration date of the whole blood and frozen.
What is the shelf life of frozen plasma
Shelf life is two (2) years from collection date when stored frozen.
What does frozen plasma contain
Contains all plasma proteins and coagulation factors but not Factor VIII ( hemophilia) and vWF
Excellent source of oncotic proteins, immunoglobulins, lipids and electrolytes.
When do you do a frozen plasma transfusion
used: Orphaned neonate/failing puppy syndrome. /parvo
What is fresh frozen plasma
Plasma is removed and frozen very shortly after collection
within 8 hours of collection and frozen.
What is the shelf life of fresh frozen plasma
Shelf life is 1 year from collection when stored frozen.
What is cryoprecipitate
Cryoprecipitate is obtained from Fresh Frozen Plasma that has been slowly thawed and the supernatant plasma removed.
Concentration of factor V, factor VIII, fibrinogen, vWB factor.
What is the shelf life of cryoprecipitate
Store in freezer for 1 year.
Shelf life is 1 year from collection date when stored in the freezer.
What is the cryosupernatant
Contains all coagulation factors but with reduced factor VIII and factor V
What is the shelf life of cryosupernatant
Store in freezer for 2 years.
Why do you use cryosupernatant
Rodenticide poisoning (e.g. Warfarin)
Passive immunity (e.g. parvovirus, orphaned neonates)
Protein replacement –hypoproteinemia or hypoalbuminemia.