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Flashcards in CVS Deck (44)
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31

heart rate has

- no effect on cardiac output in normal settings (stroke volume (VENTRICLES) factor in EDV factor in venous return HAS)
- but very low/very high heart rate impedes VR and CO

32

decrease CARDIAC OUTPUT is due to

- decrease HEART RATE
- increase HEART RATE filling problem massive tachycardia, arrhythmia not enough filling

33

dilation of arteries (ARTERIOLAR DILATOR) FLOW

- more forward flow
- into the veins
- INCREASE CO

34

constriction of the arteries (FLOW)

- decrease radius thereby decreasing flow
- less blood going to the venous system
- decrease venous return
- DECREASE CO

35

compensated failure parameters NORMAL VP and CO

- decreasing contractility
- maintaining the performance (preload)
- increase venous pressure
- CO is maintained in acceptable limits

36

decompensated failure parameters NORMAL VP and CO

- heart failure
- CO below >
- volume overload

37

SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

- abnormal reduction in ventricular emptying due to impaired contractility or excessive afterload
- PRESSURE OVERLOAD--increase TPR (hypertension), increase afterload (HTN), obstruction (aortic stenosis)
- heart develops CONCENTRIC HYPERTROPHY
- VOLUME OVERLOAD-- increase EDV (aortic insufficiency, mitral insufficiency/regurgitation) increase back flow of blood to left ventricle
- heart develops ECCENTRIC HYPERTROPHY

38

DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

- decrease in ventricular compliance during FILLING phase
- DECREASING venous return
- tissue stiffness
- impaired ventricular relaxation
- diminished Frank -Starling law mechanism

39

an INCREASE in afterload

- is due to PRESSURE/VOLUME OVERLOAD

40

CARDIOMYOPATHY

- failure of myocardium where the underlying cause originates within the MYOCYTES

41

BASIC TYPES OF CARDIOMYOPATHIES

- DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
- RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY
- HYPERTOPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

42

DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

- LEFT ventricular dilatation
- modest hypertrophy
- chamber size is INCREASED
- affected LEFT and RIGHT heart
- intact diastolic function
- compensation increased sympathetic stimulation to the myocardium can lead to
- systolic dysfunction despite increase contractility
- mitral and tricuspid failure can lead to complete failure

43

RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY

- decrease ventricular compliance
- DIASTOLIC filling/dysfunction
- decrease ventricular cavity size
- increase filling pressure
- left and right sided congestion
- ventricular hypertrophy (+/-)
- maintain systolic function
- NARROWED chamber size

44

HYPERTOPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

- septal or ventricular hypertrophy is unrelated to a pressure
- diastolic dysfunction is due to INCREASE muscle STIFFNESS and impaired relaxation
- ASYMMETRIC HYPERTROPHY of the septum
due to restriction of ventricular outflow
- IDIOPATHIC HYPERTROPHIC SUBAORTIC STENOSIS
- PULMONARY CONGESTION
- SEPTAL FIBER DISARRAY