CVS Session 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CVS Session 3 Deck (91):
0

What does septation achieve?

Creation of 4 chambers
Selective outflow

1

Where does septation occur?

Interarterial septum
Interventricular septum
Septation of ventricular outflow

2

Where do endocardial cushions develop?

Point of constriction in the atrioventricular region - AV canal

3

In which direction do the endocardial cushions grow?

From dorsal and ventral walls towards middle

4

What is the function of the endocardial cushions?

Divide developing heart into right and left channels
Contribute tissues

5

What is the path of the septum primum?

Moves down to fused endocardial cushions

6

What is the ostium primum?

Hole present before septum primum fuses

7

What forms the ostium secundum?

Programmed cell death

8

When does the ostium secundum form?

Before ostium primum closes

9

Describe septum secundum formation.

Crescent-shaped septum grows with foramen ovale

10

How many holes and septa are involved in atrial septation?

3 holes
2 septa

11

Where does the muscular portion in ventricular septation grow upwards from?

Same platform as atrial septum

12

What is the primary interventricular foramen?

Small gap left by growth of muscular portion towards endocardial cushions in ventricular septation

13

What fills the primary interventricular foramen and forms the membranous portion of the interventricular septum?

Connective tissue from endocardial cushions

14

What are the stages of atrial septation?

Septum primum --> ostium secundum appearing --> ostium secundum complete --> septum secundum --> septum secundum complete w/foramen ovale --> R to L shunt

15

Where are the left and right auricles of the L and R atria derived?

Primitive atrium

16

What is the fossa ovalis?

Adult remnant of foramen ovale

17

What is the purpose of the foramen ovale?

In utero shunt to bypass lungs

18

How is the difference in atrial development identified in the developed heart?

R atrium has smooth but largely trabeculated walls
L atrium largely smooth walled

19

What is visible in the right and left atria?

R: fossa ovalis
L: pulmonary vein entrances

20

Describe the formation of the conotruncal septum.

Endocardial cushions appear staggered in the truncus arteriosus --> grow towards and twist around each other --> forms spiral septum

21

Are septation of the outflow tract and atrial septation simultaneous?

Yep

22

What is the result of successful outflow tract septation?

Left ventricle pumps to aorta
Right ventricle pumps to pulmonary trunk
Blood circulates in spiral flow

23

How does foetal blood return to the placenta?

Via umbilical arteries

24

What occurs to the foetal circulation during birth?

Respiration begins
Left atrial pressure increases
Foramen ovale closes
Ductus arteriosus contracts
Ductus venosus closes structurally

25

What prevents L to R bloodflow in the neonatal heart?

p(LA) > p(RA)
Septum primum pushed against septum secundum w/specific non-alignment

26

Under what circumstance does blood move through the foramen ovale?

p(LA)

27

What are the fates of each of the foetal shunts after birth?

Foramen ovale --> fossa ovalis
Ductus arteriosus --> ligamentum arteriosum
Ductus venosus --> ligamentum venosum
Umbilical vein --> ligamentum teres (hepatis)

28

What are the fates of each of the parts of the primordial heart tube?

Sinus venosus --> RA except L horn
Atrium --> auricles of atria
Ventricle --> left ventricle
Bulboventricular sulcus --> primary IV foramen

29

How does the bulbus cordis change during development?

Proximal third --> trabeculated RV
Conus cordis --> outflow tract of L and R ventricles
Truncus arteriosus --> roots of pulmonary trunk and proximal aorta

30

Why are congenital heart defects common?

Due to complexity of septation

31

Which type of congenital heart defect is most common?

Ventricular septal defects

32

What causes transposition of great vessels?

Conotruncal septum is not spiral

33

What causes tetralogy of Fallot?

Conus cordis not equally split into 2 therefore four separate defects arise

34

What are the three causes of congenital heart disease?

Genetics
Environmental
Maternal infections

35

Does glycaemia in maternal diabetes directly cause predisposition to congenital heart defects?

No

36

What is the normal physiology of the heart?

R ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
Pulmonary circulation has low resistance
L ventricle pumps oxygenated blood at systemic BP to aorta
Each ventricle morphological lay adapted to task

37

What is the approximate oxygen saturation of blood in the right side of the heart?

67%

38

What happens to the blood flow in an acyanotic shunt?

L --> R
Blood from L heart returned to lungs instead of body

39

What must the heart do to maintain cardiac output in the event of an acyanotic shunt?

Pump harder

40

What is damaging to the lungs in the instance of a L-->R shunt?

Increased pulmonary artery and venous pressure

41

What can cause an acyanotic shunt?

Atrial/ventricular septal defects
Patent ductus arteriosus
Aortic/pulmonary/mitral stenosis
Coarctation of the aorta

42

What do both acyanotic and cyanotic shunts require?

A hole

43

What happens to the passage of blood in a cyanotic shunt?

R --> L
Deoxygenated blood bypasses the lungs

44

At what oxygen saturation is cyanosis seen?

45

What can cause a cyanotic shunt?

Pulmonary stenosis
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of great arteries
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
Univentricular heart

46

Why do atrial septal defects eventually lead to right heart failure?

Increased pulmonary blood flow --> right ventricle volume overload

47

What three locations are the common sites for an atrial septal defect?

Sinus venous defect
Secundum atrial defect
Primum atrium defect

48

Why is pulmonary resistance not usually damaged by an atrial septal defect?

Blood is at low pressure - pulmonary hypertension is rare

49

In which direction does blood flow in an atrial septal defect?

L --> R

50

Why does a ventricular septal defect lead to eventual pulmonary hypertension?

Left ventricle volume overload --> pulmonary venous congestion

51

Why is pulmonary resistance usually damaged in a ventricular septal defect?

Blood at high pressure

52

Why is a patent foramen ovale not a true ASD?

Usually clinically silent due to higher left atrial pressure closing flap

53

How does a patent foramen ovale allow the passage of a venous embolism into the systemic circulation?

Right heart pressure increases --> flap opens

54

Why is oxygenated and deoxygenated blood pumped to the lungs at high pressure in an atrio-ventricular septal defect?

Blood mixes in atria and ventricles as common AV valve leaks blood back into upper chambers

55

What causes an atrio-ventricular septal defect to form?

Faulty development of the embryonic endocardial cushions

56

Why do the ventricle muscle walls thicken in aortic stenosis?

To be able to contract with more force to push blood through narrowed aorta

57

What causes aortic stenosis?

Congenital defect
Calcium deposits in aortic valve

58

What predisposes aortic stenosis by calcium deposits in the aortic valve?

Abnormal aortic/bicuspid valves

59

Is aortic stenosis more common in men or women?

3x more common in men

60

Why must L--> R shunting be treated?

To avoid vascular remodelling of the pulmonary circulation

61

What happens if pulmonary vascular remodelling causes pulmonary resistance to increase beyond systemic circulation resistance?

Right heart pressure increases causing shunt to become R--> L
Eisenmenger syndrome

62

Why does coarctation of the aorta cause LV hypertrophy?

More muscle needed to push blood through narrowing in ductus arteriosus area

63

What vasculature in the body is affected by coarctation of the aorta?

All except head and upper limb

64

What signs related to the systemic circulation can be detected clinically in coarctation of the aorta?

Femoral pulse weak and delayed
Upper body hypertension

65

In what range can the extent of symptoms of coarctation of the aorta be found?

Ranging from neonate heart failure to detection only in adulthood

66

Which four congenital heart defects are present in Tetralogy of Fallot?

Overriding aorta
Ventricular septal defect
Pulmonary stenosis
Thickened R ventricle

67

What does the magnitude and severity of the shunt depend on in Tetralogy of Fallot?

Severity of pulmonary stenosis

68

What is an overriding aorta?

Aorta comes off both ventricles

69

In which direction is the blood shunted in Tetralogy of Fallot?

R--> L

70

What can overcome the excess bloodflow present in Tetralogy of Fallot?

Pulmonary stenosis

71

What is tricuspid atresia?

Absence of RV inlet causing R--> L atrial shunt of entire venous return

72

How is blood flow to the lungs achieved in tricuspid atresia?

Drugs followed by surgery to keep central septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus shunts open

73

What is a univentricular heart?

Only one giant ventricle present

74

Is univentricular heart seen with or without transposition of great arteries?

Either

75

What is hypoplastic left heart?

Left ventricle is underdeveloped and ascending aorta is very small

76

What supports the systemic circulation in hypoplastic left heart?

Right ventricle

77

How is hypoplastic left heart treated?

ASD or PDA must be kept open for short term survival to enable surgery to reconstruct R ventricle as pump

78

How are the great arteries arranged in transposition of the Great Arteries?

Aorta connected to R ventricle
Pulmonary artery connected to L ventricle

79

What must be present for transposition of the great arteries to be viable?

Atrial/ventricular/ductal shunt so two circuits can communicate

80

What is transposition of the great arteries an example of?

Bi-directional shunting

81

How is transposition of the great arteries treated?

With immediate surgery or use of drugs to keep shunts open until surgery can be performed

82

What is pulmonary atresia?

Absence of R ventricle outlet causing R--> L shunt of entire venous return

83

How is bloodflow to lungs achieved in pulmonary atresia?

PDA

84

How does an ASD usually present?

Asymptomatic late into adulthood
Late onset arrhythmia
R heart failure

85

How does a VSD usually present?

Unless v. small seen in infancy w/left heart failure
Very common
Causes heart murmurs

86

What does an untreated VSD lead to?

Inoperable pulmonary hypertension

87

What complicates coarctation of the aorta in adulthood?

Renal hypertension --> left ventricle hypertrophy

88

What is often associated with coarctation of the aorta in adulthood?

Aortic valve stenosis

89

How does Tetralogy of Fallot usually present?

In infancy/early childhood w/cyanotic spells
Mild cases compatible w/adulthood

90

Which congenital heart defects are neonatal emergencies due to reduced pulmonary bloodflow?

Transposition of the great arteries
Hypoplastic left heart
Preductal coarctation of the aorta
Pulmonary atresia