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Flashcards in MSK Session 7 Deck (77):
0

What forms the pelvic girdle?

2 innominate bones
Sacrum
Coccyx

1

What forms the hip bone?

Ilium
Pubic bone
Ischium

2

Why bust the pelvis be carefully examined upon fracture in one location?

If its breaks in one place it is likely to break in another

3

How much movement does the sacroiliac joint allow?

A small amount

4

Slippage of what causes shortening of the leg in injury?

Sacroiliac joint

5

What is true leg length?

ASIS to medial malleolus

6

What is apparent leg length?

Umbilicus to medial malleolus

7

What weight bears when seated?

Ischial tuberosity

8

What does the acetabulum have components of?

Ilium
Pubis
Ischium

9

What happens to the triradiate cartilage that joins the three components of the acetabulum in children?

It is ossified by 20-25 y.o.

10

Which is the weight bearing bone of the leg?

Tibia

11

What does the tibia articulate with?

Proximally: condyles of femur
Distally: talus
Proximally and distally: fibula

12

What develops on the tibia in osteoarthritis?

Osteophytes

13

What line can be seen on the posterior tibia?

Soleal

14

Why does the femur have a thin neck?

Allow for a large range of movement

15

What does the femur articulate with proximally?

Acetabulum

16

What is the angle of inclination?

Axis of head and shaft
125 degrees

17

What causes external rotation of the leg in femoral neck fracture?

Lesser trochanter moving superiorly

18

Who can the anterior and posterior femur be identified?

Anterior has intertrochanteric line
Posterior has intertrochanteric crest (more visible)

19

Why is it possible to walk if the fibula is broken?

It is non weight bearing

20

What does the fibula articulate with?

Talus
Tibia

21

Why must the leg be amputated if the fibula is congenitally absent?

Lack of muscle attachments

22

What are the 7 tarsus bones?

Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
Cuboid
3 Cuneiform

23

Which is the only bone of the fort that articulate as with the leg?

Talus

24

How many phalanges are present in the figure at toe?

2

25

How many phalanges are there in all digits except the great toe?

3

26

What is the direction of the 2 arches of the foot?

Front to back
Side to side

27

What are the anterior thigh muscles innervated by?

Femoral nerve

28

What movements do the anterior thigh muscles carry out?

Flexion at the hip
Extension of knee

29

Where do all of the quadriceps muscles converge?

Quadriceps tendon

30

What are the quadriceps muscles?

Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Vastus lateralis

31

Which muscles in the anterior thigh are innervated directly from spinal level?

Iliopsoas

32

Which muscles form the iliopsoas group?

Psoas major
Psoas minor
Iliacus

33

What is the blood supply to the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Aorta --> external iliac --> femoral artery --> deep artery of thigh --> circumflex --> perforating

34

What does the femoral artery turn into when it passes through the hiatus?

Popliteal artery

35

Describe the venous drainage of the anterior compartment of the thigh.

Saphenofemoral junction --> great saphenous vein --> posterior of medial condyle of femur --> anterior to medial maleolus
--> popliteal vein --> small saphenous vein

36

What is the main action of pectineus?

Adduct thigh
Flex thigh
Assist w/medial rotation

37

What innervates pectineus?

Femoral nerve

38

What is the main action of psoas major?

Flex thigh
Stabilising hip joint

39

What innervates psoas major?

Anterior rami of lumbar nerves L1-3

40

What is the main action of psoas minor?

Flex thigh
Stabilise hip joint

41

What innervates psoas minor?

Anterior rami of lumbar nerves L1 and 2

42

What is the main action of iliacus?

Flex thigh
Stabilise hip joint

43

What innervates iliacus?

Femoral nerve

44

What is the main action of sartorius?

Flex thigh
Abduct thigh
Laterally rotate thigh
Flex leg at knee

45

What innervates sartorius?

Femoral nerve

46

What is the main action of quadriceps femoris?

Extend leg at knee
Rectus femoris steadies hip and assists iliopsoas flex

47

What innervates quadriceps femoris?

Femoral nerve

48

What are the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh collectively known as?

Hip adductors

49

How many muscles are there in the medial compartment of the thigh?

5

50

What innervates all 5 muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator

51

What supplies all muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator artery

52

What are the five muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Gracialis
Obturator externus

53

What is the main action of adductor longus?

Addicts thigh

54

What is the main action of adductor brevis?

Adducts thigh
Flexes thigh to some extent

55

What is the main action of adductor magnus?

Adductor thigh
Adductor part: flexes thigh
Hamstrings part: extends thigh

56

What is the main action of gracialis?

Addicts thigh
Flexes leg
Helps rotate leg medially

57

What is the main action of obturator externus?

Laterally rotates thigh
Steadies head of femur in acetabulum

58

What forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle?

Medial border of sartorius

59

What forms the superior border of the femoral triangle?

Inguinal ligament

60

What forms the medial border of the femoral triangle?

Medial border of adductor longus

61

What forms the floor of the femoral triangle?

Iliopsoas laterally
Pectineus medially

62

What forms the roof of the femoral triangle?

Fascia lata
Cribriform fascia
Subcutaneous tissue
Skin

63

What is the contents of the femoral triangle moving lateral to medial?

Femoral nerve and its terminal branches
Femoral artery and several of its branches
Femoral vein and its proximal tributaries

64

What are the proximal tributaries of the femoral vein?

Great saphenous vein
Profundua femoris vein

65

What is the femoral sheath?

3-4 cm long funnel-shaped fascial compartment lining the vascular compartment of the retro-inguinal space

66

What does the femoral sheath house?

Femoral canal

67

What does the space in the femoral canal allow for?

Venous and lymph distension during different levels of flow

68

What is housed within the femoral canal?

Femoral artery
Femoral vein
Lymphatic vessels
Deep inguinal lymph node

69

What is outside the femoral canal but within the femoral triangle?

Femoral nerve

70

What is a femoral hernia?

Small intestine pushed through femoral ring

71

What is the femoral ring?

Weak point in anterior abdominal wall

72

What bounds the femoral ring?

Laterally: femoral
Medially: lacunar ligament

73

What does a femoral hernia initially compress?

Femoral canal

74

What can cause strangulation of a femoral hernia?

Lacunar ligament

75

Why are femoral hernias more common in women?

They usually have a wider pelvis

76

What is the usual treatment for femoral hernia?

Surgery