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Flashcards in MSK Session 1 Deck (93):
0

Describe the anatomical position.

Face forwards
Inferior margin of orbit level w/top of external auditory meatus
Hands by sides, palms forwards
Feet and knees together, toes forwards

1

What is the longitudinal section parallel to?

Long axis of the body

2

What is the transverse section perpendicular to?

Long axis of body

3

What is the coronal plane?

Slices into front and back portions - think tiara sliding down

4

What is the sagittal plane?

Slices into left and right segments
Parallel to median plane

5

What is the axial plane?

Same as transverse/horizontal plane

6

What is dorsiflexion?

Toes to knees

7

What is plantarflexion?

Toes to floor

8

What movement is inversion?

Outside of foot to floor (soles together)

9

What movement is eversion?

Inside of foot to floor (soles away from each other)

10

What movements make up circumduction?

Flexion --> abduction --> extension --> adduction

11

What movements make up shrugging shoulders?

Elevation and depression

12

What movements can the jaw make?

Retrusion
Protrusion

13

What movements can the scapula make?

Protraction - arms anterior
Retraction - arms inferior

14

What does the head of the ulna articulate with?

Notch of radius and styloid process of ulna

15

What is the only bone connecting the upper limb to the trunk?

Clavicle

16

Why do patients who have broken their clavicle support the affected arm with their other arm?

Trapezius can't hold the lateral end of the clavicle due to the weight of the UL so the shoulder drops

17

Why might the clavicle appear shorter after fracture?

Adductor muscles of arm pull lateral fragment medially

18

What type of clavicle fracture is often seen in children?

Greenstick

19

Why is there little treatment for scapula fractures?

Covered by muscle

20

What is an impacted humeral fracture?

One fragment moves into the spongy bone of another fragment

21

What happens in avulsion fracture of the greater tubercle of the humerus?

Small part is torn away and muscles pull the UL into medial rotation

22

What happens to the proximal fragment in transverse fracture of the humerus?

Deltoid muscles pull it laterally

23

What causes a spiral fracture of the humeral shaft?

FOOSH

24

What causes an intercondylar fracture of the humerus?

Sever fall on flexed elbow causes the olecranon of ulna to wedge b/w medial and lateral parts of humerus condyle separating one or both of them

25

How are radius and ulna fractures usually seen?

Transverse at same level

26

In which third of the radius and ulna are fractures most commonly seen?

Middle

27

Why does fracture of one bone in the forearm usually result in dislocation of the nearest joint?

Interosseous membrane transmits force

28

What kind of deformity is caused by Colles fracture?

Dinner fork - ulna styloid projects more due to shortened radius

29

What injury can disrupt bone growth?

Epiphyseal plate fractures

30

What movements especially cause pain in scaphoid fracture?

Dorsiflexion
Abduction

31

What complication can arise due to scaphoid fracture?

Degenerative joint disease due to poor blood supply proximally

32

Why does hamate fracture cause decreased grip?

It is close to ulnar nerve so is likely to cause damage

33

What is a complication associated with hamate fracture?

Non-union due to too much traction

34

What do crushing injuries cause?

Metacarpal and phalanges fractures

35

What is boxer's fracture?

Fracture of the 5th metacarpal bone

36

What innervates the pectoralis major?

Lateral and medial pectoral nerves

37

What are the main actions of the pectoralis major?

Adduct and medially rotate humerus
Move scapula anteriorly and inferiorly
Flexion and subsequent extension of humerus

38

What innervates the pectoralis minor?

Medial pectoral nerve

39

What is the main action of the pectoralis minor?

Stabilises scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall

40

What innervates the sub-clavius muscle?

Nerve to subclavius

41

What is the main action of the sub-clavius muscle?

Anchors and depresses clavicle

42

What innervates the serratus anterior?

Long thoracic nerve

43

What is the main action of the serratus anterior?

Protracts and rotates scapula holding it against the thoracic wall

44

How many bones are there in the skeleton?

206

45

How many of each type of bone are there?

8 cranial
6 auditory ossicles
14 facial
26 vertebral
26 thoracic cage
64 UL
62 LL

46

How many bones are there in the axial skeleton?

80

47

How does the function of the axial skeleton compare to that of the appendicular skeleton?

Axial is for protection and support
Appendicular is for mobility

48

What is the function of the skeleton?

Mineral storage
Lipid storage
Support
Protect
Shape
Movement
Haemopoiesis

49

Where is lipid stored in bone?

Yellow marrow

50

Where are minerals stored in the nine?

Bone matrix

51

What types of bone are there?

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

52

Give a named example of a long bone.

Femur

53

Give a named example of a short cuboidal bone.

Calcenus

54

Give a named example of a flat bone.

Parietal

55

What type of bone are pneumatic, sinuses and mastoids?

Irregular

56

What type of bone is the patella?

Sesamoid

57

What is a tuberosity?

Roughened, rounded elevation

58

What is a tubercle?

Small elevation

59

What is a slender projection of a bone called?

Spine/spinous process

60

What is a fissure in a bone?

Cleft/narrow slit

61

What is the trochanter?

Large projection of femur

62

What is a foramen?

Hole/opening

63

What name is given to a tunnel/canal in bone anatomy?

Meatus

64

What is a condyle?

Large prominence/rounded surface

65

What is a depression in a bone called?

Fossa

66

What is an epicondyle?

Smaller prominence above a condyle

67

What is a sinus in bone anatomy?

Hollow space

68

What is the name given to a large groove in bone anatomy?

Notch

69

What is the name given to a ridge in bone anatomy?

Crest

70

What is a facet in bone anatomy?

Flattened surface for joint/muscle attachment

71

What are synarthrosis?

Fixed/immovable joints w/fibrous connective tissue

72

Give three examples of synarthrosis.

Sutures
Gomphosis
Syndesmosis

73

What is a syndemosis?

Interosseous membrane

74

What are amphiathrosis?

Continuous, slightly movable cartilaginous joints

75

What is a synchondrosis?

Primary cartilaginous joint with hyaline cartilage connecting medium (growth plate)

76

What is the main example of a synchondrosis?

First rib and sternum

77

What is a symphysis?

Secondary cartilaginous joint with fibrocartilaginous fusion

78

Give an example of a symphysis.

Pubic symphysis

79

What is a diathrosis?

Freely movable synovial joint consisting of an articular capsule (synovium), synovial fluid and articular cartilage

80

What accessory structures can synovial joints have?

Menisci
Extrinsic/intrinsic ligaments

81

What are the 6 types of synovial joint?

Condyloid
Pivot
Plane
Hinge
Saddle
Ball and socket

82

What movements does a condyloid synovial joint facilitate?

Circumduction
Adduction and abduction
Flexion and extension

83

Give an example of a condyloid synovial joint.

Metacarpopharyngeal

84

What is a pivot synovial joint?

Round bony process into a bony ligamentous socket that permits rotation

85

Give two examples of pivot joints.

Atlanto-axial
Proximal radio-ulnar

86

What movement does a plane synovial joint permit?

Gliding/sliding

87

Give two examples of plane joints.

Intertarsal
Acromioclavicular

88

What is a hinge synovial joint?

A joint permitting flexion and extension only such as the elbow

89

What joint surfaces are present in a sadly synovial joint?

Concave and convex

90

Give an example of a saddle joint.

First metacarpopharyngeal joint (thumb)

91

What is a ball and socket synovial joint?

Rounded head into a concavity that allows movement in several axes

92

What allows a compromise between stability and flexibility in a ball and socket joint?

How deeply set the joint is
Ligaments
Muscle tone