Flashcards in MSK Session 1 Deck (93):
Describe the anatomical position.
Inferior margin of orbit level w/top of external auditory meatus
Hands by sides, palms forwards
Feet and knees together, toes forwards
What is the longitudinal section parallel to?
Long axis of the body
What is the transverse section perpendicular to?
Long axis of body
What is the coronal plane?
Slices into front and back portions - think tiara sliding down
What is the sagittal plane?
Slices into left and right segments
Parallel to median plane
What is the axial plane?
Same as transverse/horizontal plane
What is dorsiflexion?
Toes to knees
What is plantarflexion?
Toes to floor
What movement is inversion?
Outside of foot to floor (soles together)
What movement is eversion?
Inside of foot to floor (soles away from each other)
What movements make up circumduction?
Flexion --> abduction --> extension --> adduction
What movements make up shrugging shoulders?
Elevation and depression
What movements can the jaw make?
What movements can the scapula make?
Protraction - arms anterior
Retraction - arms inferior
What does the head of the ulna articulate with?
Notch of radius and styloid process of ulna
What is the only bone connecting the upper limb to the trunk?
Why do patients who have broken their clavicle support the affected arm with their other arm?
Trapezius can't hold the lateral end of the clavicle due to the weight of the UL so the shoulder drops
Why might the clavicle appear shorter after fracture?
Adductor muscles of arm pull lateral fragment medially
What type of clavicle fracture is often seen in children?
Why is there little treatment for scapula fractures?
Covered by muscle
What is an impacted humeral fracture?
One fragment moves into the spongy bone of another fragment
What happens in avulsion fracture of the greater tubercle of the humerus?
Small part is torn away and muscles pull the UL into medial rotation
What happens to the proximal fragment in transverse fracture of the humerus?
Deltoid muscles pull it laterally
What causes a spiral fracture of the humeral shaft?
What causes an intercondylar fracture of the humerus?
Sever fall on flexed elbow causes the olecranon of ulna to wedge b/w medial and lateral parts of humerus condyle separating one or both of them
How are radius and ulna fractures usually seen?
Transverse at same level
In which third of the radius and ulna are fractures most commonly seen?
Why does fracture of one bone in the forearm usually result in dislocation of the nearest joint?
Interosseous membrane transmits force
What kind of deformity is caused by Colles fracture?
Dinner fork - ulna styloid projects more due to shortened radius
What injury can disrupt bone growth?
Epiphyseal plate fractures
What movements especially cause pain in scaphoid fracture?
What complication can arise due to scaphoid fracture?
Degenerative joint disease due to poor blood supply proximally
Why does hamate fracture cause decreased grip?
It is close to ulnar nerve so is likely to cause damage
What is a complication associated with hamate fracture?
Non-union due to too much traction
What do crushing injuries cause?
Metacarpal and phalanges fractures
What is boxer's fracture?
Fracture of the 5th metacarpal bone
What innervates the pectoralis major?
Lateral and medial pectoral nerves
What are the main actions of the pectoralis major?
Adduct and medially rotate humerus
Move scapula anteriorly and inferiorly
Flexion and subsequent extension of humerus
What innervates the pectoralis minor?
Medial pectoral nerve
What is the main action of the pectoralis minor?
Stabilises scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall
What innervates the sub-clavius muscle?
Nerve to subclavius
What is the main action of the sub-clavius muscle?
Anchors and depresses clavicle
What innervates the serratus anterior?
Long thoracic nerve
What is the main action of the serratus anterior?
Protracts and rotates scapula holding it against the thoracic wall
How many bones are there in the skeleton?
How many of each type of bone are there?
6 auditory ossicles
26 thoracic cage
How many bones are there in the axial skeleton?
How does the function of the axial skeleton compare to that of the appendicular skeleton?
Axial is for protection and support
Appendicular is for mobility
What is the function of the skeleton?
Where is lipid stored in bone?
Where are minerals stored in the nine?
What types of bone are there?
Give a named example of a long bone.
Give a named example of a short cuboidal bone.
Give a named example of a flat bone.
What type of bone are pneumatic, sinuses and mastoids?
What type of bone is the patella?
What is a tuberosity?
Roughened, rounded elevation
What is a tubercle?
What is a slender projection of a bone called?
What is a fissure in a bone?
What is the trochanter?
Large projection of femur
What is a foramen?
What name is given to a tunnel/canal in bone anatomy?
What is a condyle?
Large prominence/rounded surface
What is a depression in a bone called?
What is an epicondyle?
Smaller prominence above a condyle
What is a sinus in bone anatomy?
What is the name given to a large groove in bone anatomy?
What is the name given to a ridge in bone anatomy?
What is a facet in bone anatomy?
Flattened surface for joint/muscle attachment
What are synarthrosis?
Fixed/immovable joints w/fibrous connective tissue
Give three examples of synarthrosis.
What is a syndemosis?
What are amphiathrosis?
Continuous, slightly movable cartilaginous joints
What is a synchondrosis?
Primary cartilaginous joint with hyaline cartilage connecting medium (growth plate)
What is the main example of a synchondrosis?
First rib and sternum
What is a symphysis?
Secondary cartilaginous joint with fibrocartilaginous fusion
Give an example of a symphysis.
What is a diathrosis?
Freely movable synovial joint consisting of an articular capsule (synovium), synovial fluid and articular cartilage
What accessory structures can synovial joints have?
What are the 6 types of synovial joint?
Ball and socket
What movements does a condyloid synovial joint facilitate?
Adduction and abduction
Flexion and extension
Give an example of a condyloid synovial joint.
What is a pivot synovial joint?
Round bony process into a bony ligamentous socket that permits rotation
Give two examples of pivot joints.
What movement does a plane synovial joint permit?
Give two examples of plane joints.
What is a hinge synovial joint?
A joint permitting flexion and extension only such as the elbow
What joint surfaces are present in a sadly synovial joint?
Concave and convex
Give an example of a saddle joint.
First metacarpopharyngeal joint (thumb)
What is a ball and socket synovial joint?
Rounded head into a concavity that allows movement in several axes