Flashcards in Deck 7 Deck (30)
An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Separates homologous chromosomes
sister chromatids separate
Pairs of homologous chromosomes move to the equator of the cell.
Homologous chrmosomes move to the oppisite poles of the cell.
Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed
Homologous chromosomes separate. Ends with the production of 2 haploid daughter cells.
A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
genetic makeup of an organism
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
law of independent assortment
the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Law of Segregation
first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
principle of dominance
Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Characteristics that are inherited
Organisms that, when reproducing, create offspring of all the same variety.
A type of inheritance that does not follow strict patterns of dominant vs. recessive
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.