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Introduction to Biology > Deck 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 7 Deck (30)
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1

clone

An organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced

2

sexual reproduction

type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism

3

crossing over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.

4

Meiosis I

Separates homologous chromosomes

5

Meiosis II

sister chromatids separate

6

Metaphase I

Pairs of homologous chromosomes move to the equator of the cell.

7

Anaphase I

Homologous chrmosomes move to the oppisite poles of the cell.

8

Telophase I

Cytoplasm divides, 2 daughter cells are formed

9

Meiosis I

Homologous chromosomes separate. Ends with the production of 2 haploid daughter cells.

10

dihybrid cross

A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene

11

F1 generation

the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms

12

F2 generation

Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.

13

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

14

Heterozygous

An organism that has two different alleles for a trait

15

Homozygous

An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait

16

law of independent assortment

the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis

17

Law of Segregation

first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed

18

Gene

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

19

monohybrid cross

A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

20

P generation

Parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross

21

Phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

22

Punnett Square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

23

principle of dominance

Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

24

Recessive

An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present

25

Trait

Characteristics that are inherited

26

true-breeding

Organisms that, when reproducing, create offspring of all the same variety.

27

Non-Mendelian Inheritance

A type of inheritance that does not follow strict patterns of dominant vs. recessive

28

incomplete dominance

situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another

29

Codominance

A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive.

30

sickle cell anemia

hereditary disorder of abnormal hemoglobin producing sickle-shaped erythrocytes and hemolysis