Deck 8 Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Biology > Deck 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 8 Deck (30)
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1

sickle cell trait

symptoms shown by those possessing a heterozygous genotype for sickle cell anemia

2

polygenic inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single character

3

Epistasis

Two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene

4

plietropy

single genes can affect multiple characteristics

5

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

inherited disorder in which the infant lacks a liver enzyme

6

multifactorial

Referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors.

7

norm of reaction

The range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype, due to environmental influences.

8

autosomal chromosome

22 chromosome pairs that control traits NOT related to gender--same in females and males.

9

Autosome

A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome.

10

Karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

11

Aneuploidy

Abnormal number of chromosomes

12

Progeria

condition of premature old age occuring in childhood

13

Nucleotide

in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

14

Genes

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

15

Transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

16

Ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes

17

Translation

Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

18

Purine

double-ring nitrogenous base

19

Pyrimidine

single-ring nitrogenous base

20

tumor suppressor gene

a gene that codes for regulator proteins that prevent the cell from undergoing uncontrolled division

21

biological evolution

the change over time in populations of related organisms

22

Microevolution

evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period.

23

Macroevolution

large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time

24

heritable variation

differences that are passed on from parent to offspring

25

Adaptation

A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

26

DNA replication

The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself.

27

DNA polymerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.

28

semiconservative

method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new

29

template strand

the strand of DNA that specifies the complementary mRNA molecule

30

Primer

short segments of DNA that guide DNA polymerase to the section of DNA to copy