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Introduction to Biology > Deck 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 4 Deck (30)
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1

Nitrogenous base

A type of organic molecule that consists of one or two ring structures. 5 types: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil.

2

Nucleic acid

macromolecules that carry out two main functions in the cell: storage of genetic information and synthesis of proteins.

3

Nucleotide

Base of nucleic acid. Chains of this make up nucleic acids. Contains a phosphate, a sugar and a nitrogenous base.

4

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

Transmits the information coded in the DNA so that it can be used to produce proteins.

5

Features of DNA

Function: Stores genetic information. Location: Remains in the nucleus. Structure: Double helix. Sugar: Deoxyribose. Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Thymine. Purines: Adenine, guanine.

6

Features of RNA

Function: Involved in protein synthesis. Location: Leaves the nucleus. Structure: Usually single-stranded. Sugar: Ribose. Pyrimidines: Cytosine, uracil. Purines: Adenine, guanine.

7

Actin

Filament in the Cytoskeleton which has a prominent role in cell movement, maintaining cell shape, and connection to other cells, as well as intracellular transport.

8

Cell Membrane

provides a barrier between the interior and exterior of the cell and it regulates the flow of substances in and out of the cell.

9

Cell wall

Protective layer for prokaryotes, made of peptidoglycan.

10

central vacuole

In a plant cell. can be a place of storage, degradation, defense, and even physical support for the cell.

11

centriole

A barrel-shaped structure only present in animal cells. plays a role in the spatial organization of the cell and cell division.

12

chloroplast

In a plant cell. Chloroplasts capture energy from the sun and use that energy to build sugar molecules.

13

chromatin

the material of which the chomrosomes of organisms are composed. Consists of protein, RNA and DNA

14

chromosome

A single molecule of DNA.

15

cilium

a short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure. Occurs in large numbers on the surface of certain cells.

16

cytoplasm

the fluid that occupies the space inside the cell. the space in which the chemical reactions that enable life take place.

17

cytoskeleton

formed by a series of protein filaments, and is both a scaffold for the cell structure and a framework for many cellular activities, including movement and cell division.

18

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

a series of sacs and tubes. put together or assemble the proteins and other cellular components.

19

eukaryotic cell

larger, and most often they are multicellular organisms, including plants, animals, and fungi.

20

flagellum

External appendage to a prokaryote.

21

fungus

include molds and mushrooms, are also eukaryotes.

22

golgi apparatus

Where the proteins assembled in the ER are delivered to different parts of the cell, or in multicellular organisms, to different parts of the body.

23

lysosome

specialized vesicles found only in animal cells. Contain powerful digestive enzymes that can recycle cellular parts or destroy external invaders.

24

microtubule

Formed by centrioles. filament type of the cytoskeleton. also form appendages such as the flagellum of the sperm cell and the cilia of the cells of the respiratory system.

25

mitochondrion

takes fuel in the form of sugar (glucose) and convert it to usable energy ATP.

26

nuclear envelope

a double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus. studded with pores that allow information from inside the nucleus to enter the cytoplasm.

27

nucleoid

Region ina prokaryote, where the DNA molecule is present. Does not have a surrounding membrane.

28

nucleoulus

Within the nucleus. not bound by a membrane. Instead, it is an aggregate of molecules where ribosomes, another type of nonmembranous organelle, are assembled.

29

organelle

a specialized structure formed when a specific set of molecules bond, providing a subunit that performs a particular function within the cell. Many, but not all, are structures enclosed by a membrane.

30

plasmid

a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan.