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Introduction to Biology > Deck 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 9 Deck (30)
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1

Helicase

An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.

2

Gene

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

3

silent mutation

A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.

4

missense mutation

subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA; still produces a protein

5

nonsense mutation

subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA that produces an early stop codon

6

frameshift mutation

mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence

7

Mutation

A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.

8

gene expression

process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function

9

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

DNA --> RNA --> Protein

10

Transcription

DNA to RNA

11

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.

12

Promoter

Specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription

13

terminator

In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.

14

Codon

The three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA

15

stop codon

codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation

16

start codon

codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein

17

Anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

18

mRNA (messenger RNA)

The form of RNA which is created as a blueprint from DNA; carries instructions for making a protein

19

tRNA (transfer RNA)

The form of RNA that carries each amino acid to the ribsome to form the polypeptide chain (protein)

20

rRNA (ribosomal RNA)

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

21

Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

22

Population

A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

23

gene pool

Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

24

evolutionary fitness

success in passing genes to the next generation

25

adaptive trait

a heritable trait that enhances an individuals fitness; an evolutionary adaption

26

sexual selection

when individuals select mates based on heritable traits

27

artificial selection

selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring

28

gene flow (migration)

movement of alleles from one population to another

29

genetic drift

random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations

30

bottleneck effect

a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size