Flashcards in Deck 9 Deck (30)
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA; still produces a protein
subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA that produces an early stop codon
mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
DNA to RNA
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
Specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene.
The three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
mRNA (messenger RNA)
The form of RNA which is created as a blueprint from DNA; carries instructions for making a protein
tRNA (transfer RNA)
The form of RNA that carries each amino acid to the ribsome to form the polypeptide chain (protein)
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
success in passing genes to the next generation
a heritable trait that enhances an individuals fitness; an evolutionary adaption
when individuals select mates based on heritable traits
selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
gene flow (migration)
movement of alleles from one population to another
random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations