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Introduction to Biology > Deck 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 1 Deck (30)
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1

Abiotic

Non-living, may be within or made by a living organism.

2

Biotic

Living. Matter is considered ______ if it was ever alive at some point in time

3

Atom

Smallest level. The basic unit of matter. Consists of a dense nucleus surrounded by electrons.

4

Molecule

Second level. A chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by a chemical bond.

5

Macromolecule

Third level. Biologically important molecules that are technically polymers. Example: DNA.

6

Cell

Fourth level. The fundamental unit of life. Essentially a tiny droplet of water and other molecules enclosed by a fluid "skin" or membrane. The smallest and simplest entity that possesses all the characteristics of life.

7

Organelle

Fifth level. Compartments inside the cell that contain specific groups of macromolecules and carry out specific cellular functions. One of these organelles is the nucleus; it encloses the DNA within the cell.

8

Microorganism

Sixth level. Single-celled life form. Consists of just one cell and include unicellular organisms such as bacteria and protists.

9

Tissue

Seventh level. Formed when similar cells work together to fulfill the same detailed function.

10

Organ

Eighth level. Collections of tissues that work together to carry out a common general function. Present not only in higher level animals but also in plants.

11

Organ System

Ninth level. Consists of functionally related organs. Mammals have many.

12

Organism

Tenth Level. Individual living entities that survive and reproduce as a unit. For example, each tree in a forest.

13

Population

Eleventh level. Consists of all the individuals of a species living within a specific area.

14

Community

Twelfth level. Populations can interact with each other in positive and negative ways, and together they form this.

15

Ecosystem

Thirteenth level. Consists of all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, or nonliving, parts of that environment.

16

Biosphere

Fourteenth level. The highest level of organization in living systems. The collection of all ecosystems on Earth. Includes all habitable zones on the planet, including land, soil, and rocks to a great depth in the Earth's crust; water and ice; and the atmosphere to a great height.

17

Emergent Properties

Characteristics of a system that are not present in any of its component parts.

18

Biology

The scientific study of life and is the branch of science that studies living organisms and the way organisms interact with their environments.

19

Homeostasis

The ability or tendency of organisms and cells to maintain stable internal conditions.

20

Nutrient

Any matter an organism needs but cannot make for itself.

21

Energy

The capacity to do work or to make a change in the location, temperature, or structure of matter. Does not have mass and it does not take up space, but it can be measured in terms of what it does.

22

Growth

An increase in size.

23

Development

Structure and function change in an orderly way as an organism passes through its life cycle. An individual's pattern of _______ is partly determined by genetic instructions.

24

Reproduction

Occurs when an individual organism passes on its genetic information to a newly independent organism, or offspring.

25

Evolution

A scientific theory that explains how and why life changes over time. Provides the explanation for why all living organisms share profound similarities, and yet, the life forms on our planet are so incredibly diverse.

26

Natural Selection

Individuals are always a bit different from their parents and from each other, partly because of changes to their genes. These differences may be helpful or harmful to the individuals that inherit them. In nature, individuals often have very low odds of surviving to reproduce. Individuals with slightly harmful or even average characteristics might be less likely to make it, and those with traits that fit in very well with the local habitat will have the greatest chance to survive and reproduce. This sorting process goes on generation after generation.

27

Atomic Mass

The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons. The mass of an atom.

28

Atomic Number

The number of protons in an atom, displayed for each atom in the periodic table.

29

Chemical Bonds

Attractions between atoms that hold atoms and molecules together.

30

Covalent Bonds

Strongest chemical bond. Occurs between atoms of in the same molecule. Electron pairs are shared, creating a strong bond between atoms.