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Introduction to Biology > Deck 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 2 Deck (30)
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1

electron

Subatomic particle, located in shells on the outside of the nucleus, has a negative charge and almost no mass.

2

electronegativity

A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. How strongly does an atoms attract bonding electrons to itself?

3

element

Atoms with unique properties, designated by the atomic number.

4

hydrogen bond

Weak chemical bond. Occurs between atoms in different molecules or parts of molecules. Weak electrostatic attraction between areas of molecules with opposite partial charges.

5

ion

Positively or negatively charged atom.

6

ionic bond

Moderately strong chemical bond. Occurs between atoms in the same molecule. Electrons transfer from one atom to another.

7

isotope

Any or two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights.

8

matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass.

9

molecular formula

A formula giving the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound.

10

neutron

Subatomic particle, electrically neutral, located in the nucleus. Mass of one amu

11

nucleus

Center of the atom. Contains equal number of protons and neutrons.

12

Periodic Table

Chart organizing elements by atomic number and weight.

13

proton

Subatomic particle, located in the nucleus, with a positive charge. Mass of one amu.

14

valence electron

Electrons on the outermost shell of the atom. Involved in chemical bonds.

15

Adhesion

The attraction between water molecules and other molecules.

16

Cohesion

Water molecules are attracted to each other, keeping the molecules together.

17

Hydrophilic

Substances that will dissolve in water. Polar. They split into positive and negative ions and dissolve in water. Examples: sugars and alcohols.

18

Hydrophobic

Substances that do not dissolve in water. Non-polar. Examples: hydrocarbons and fatty acids.

19

Surface Tension

The capacity of a liquid's surface to resist being ruptured when placed under tension or stress.

20

Solute

The component(s) present in lower quantities.

21

Solution

Homogeneous mixtures, with 2 components: solvent and solutes.

22

Solvent

The component of the solution in the greatest quantity.

23

Carbohydrate

Biological macromolecule. Sugars. Essential for energy storage, cellular communication and structural support. Store energy; provide structural support; facilitate communication

24

Chemical potential energy

The energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance.

25

inorganic molecule

Molecules like water, oxygen gas, carbon dioxide, and ionic salts. Relatively stable, simple, and store little chemical energy.

26

lipid

Biological macromolecules. Fatty acids. Essential for energy storage and maintaining a boundary between the living organism and its environment. Provide energy (long term); serve as structural components of membranes

27

nucleic acid

Biological macromolecules. Nucleotides. Essential for information storage within a cell and passing on this information to the next generation. Examples: DNA. Store genetic information, used in protein synthesis.

28

organic molecule

Any molecule that contains a carbon to hydrogen covalent bond. Often complex and many store a lot of chemical potential energy. Examples: glucose, methane, DNA, protein and fat.

29

protein

Biological macromolecules. Amino acids. Essential for carrying out most of the necessary functions of life. Serve as structural components of tissues; facilitate and speed up biochemical reactions (enzymes); participate in communication

30

Dietary Fiber

Indigestible carbohydrates, which cannot be degraded by human digestive enzymes.