Flashcards in Demographics - GENERAL Deck (23)
What is demography?
Study of populations & their characteristics.
What is immigration?
Leaving the country
What is emigration?
Entering the country
What is birth rate?
What is fertility rate?
What is death rate?
- The no. of births per 1000 of the population over a year
- The no. of births per 1000 for women aged 15 - 44 over a year
- The no. of deaths per 1000 of the population over a year
What is Dependency Ratio?
The relationship between working (non-dependent) and non-working (dependent) parts of the population.
What % of the country's GDP is spent on providing pensions?
What is 8% of the country's GDP spent on?
Why might people in the south may live longer than those in the north?
Those in the north are less educated about healthy lifestyles (cultural capital).
List 3 reasons women might live longer than men.
Men tend to smoke, drink & overeat more
Men are at greater risk of disease due to the way cells age.
Testosterone can promote prostate cancer.
Why do some postmodernists believe women are choosing to have fewer children?
As consumerism, materialism & leisure grew in the late 20th, people became more individualistic.
Beck & Beck-Gernsheim (1995) suggest there's now more choices for young women & aren't restricted to motherhood.
How many children did the average woman have in:
How as the age of birth changed?
Late 20th century = early 20s
Beginning of 21st century = early 30s
How does the total fertility rate of women born outside the UK compare to those born inside?
What does this suggest?
2.2 in 2013 compared to 1.8.
Families with parents born outside the UK are bigger than those with parents born inside the UK.
Why is there a difference in total fertility rate between women born in the UK & those born outside the UK?
Foreign-born mothers are generally between 25-34 when they give birth, immigrate to the UK & when fertility rates are highest.
How many families in the UK are nuclear & what is this in spite of?
Why is this?
38% despite it being the main family unit.
Many UK families that are couples are empty nest families or planning to have children in the future. When they're accounted for, 2/3s of families can be defined as nuclear, post-nuclear or potentially nuclear.
What percentage of children born in 2013 were only children?
What percentage of households are dual-earning?
What are the two types of dual-earner households?
Professional couples committed to their careers & had children once they were established & can probably afford childcare services.
Husband earns majority share of family income & the wife works part-time & is likely to take responsibility for childcare & upkeep of the home.
What are the push & pull factors in voluntary childlessness, according to Gillespie?
PUSH - Parks (2005) found some women saw parenting as conflicting with careers or leisure interests & were disinterested in children, rejecting feeling a maternal instinct.
PULL - some women prefer increased freedom & better relationships with partners as some studies suggest couples without children are happier.
How has social housing impacted the fall in death rates and rise in life expectancy?
It's improved with new necessary benefits like good ventilation, which helped near eradication of tuberculosis in the late 20th century.
How has the welfare state impacted the fall in death rates and rise in life expectancy?
Maternity care services & health visitors were introduced to assist & visit women who just given birth.
How had the NHS had an impact on the fall in death rates and rise in life expectancy? (2)
Less diseases were spread - in 1958, everyone under 15 was vaccinated.
NHS campaigns raised awareness of damaging behaviour, encouraging people to change lifestyles.