Diabetic Medication Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Diabetic Medication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetic Medication Deck (33):
1

Name 5 Types of Oral Hypoglycemic Medication

1. Sulfonylureas
2. Biguanides
3. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
4. Thiazolidinediones
5. Meglitinides

2

Name 3 Sulfonylureas

1. Glipizide (Glucotrol)****
2. Glyburide (Glynase)
3. Glimepiride (Amaryl)

3

Sulfonylureas Mechanism of Action

Works to increase output on insulin by beta cells in pancreas. Also increases sensitivity of insulin receptors at target tissues

4

RN Implication for Sulfonylureas

1. Best taken 30 min prior to meal
2. Use cautiously in elderly patients

5

Side Effects for Sulfonylureas

1. Hypoglycemia due to missed meals or use of alcohol.

6

Name 1 Biguanide

1. Metformin (Glucophage)

7

Biguanide Mechanism of Action

Decrease liver output of sugar and increase peripheral insulin sensitivity.

8

Biguanide Nursing Implication

1. Monitor kidney testing (serum creatinine)
2. Contraindicated if pt has CHF, alcohol abuse, metabolic acidosis, liver of kidney disease or is >80 yrs old.
3. Take with food
4. DC after OR, dye (contrast) studies for 48 hrs or until kidney function is normal.

9

Biguanide Side Effect

1. GI distress and diarrhea
2. Lactic acidosis

10

Name 1 Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

1. acarbose (Precose)

11

AGI Mechanism of Action

Blocks enzymes in small intestines responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates into monosaccharides and delays absorption

12

AGI Side Effect

Most common Adverse Effect is GI related. Anti-gas medication will decrease effectiveness.

13

Name 1 Thiazolidinediones

1. rosiglitazone (Avandia)

14

Thiazolidinediones Mechanism of Action

Reduces blood glucose by decreasing insulin resistance & inhibiting hepatic glucogenesis

15

Thiazolidinediones Side Effect

1. Fluid retention
2. Headache
3. Weight gain

16

Thiazolidinediones RN Implication

1. May take 3-4 months of therapy
2. Take daily wt
3. listen to lung sounds
4. Monitor for edema

17

Maglitinides Class Information

1. Newer class
2. Acts by stimulating release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells
3. Short duration of 3-4 hrs, = efficacy to sulfonyureas
4. Most common Adverse Effect is HYPOGLYCEMIA**

18

Insulins

1. Very Rapid Acting
2. Short (Rapid) Acting
3. Intermediate Acting
4. Long Acting

19

Name 2 Very rapid acting insulin

1. Lispro (Humalog)
2. Aspart (Novalog)

20

Very Rapid Acting Insulin Action

1. 10 minute onset
2. Peaks in 1 hour
3. Lasts 3-4 hours

21

Very Rapid Acting RN Implication

1. Clear solution
2. Give 15 minutes before meal

22

Insulin

1. Monitor Blood Sugar Level
2. Draw Rapid Acting Before Long (Clear before cloudy)

23

Name 1 Short (Rapid) Acting Insulin

1. Regular

24

Short Acting Action

1. Onset in 30 Minutes
2. Peaks in 3-5 hours
3. Lasts 6-10 hours

25

Short Acting RN Implication

1. Clear solution
2. Give 30 minutes prior to meal

26

Name 2 Intermediate Acting Insulin

1. NPH
2. Lente

27

Intermediate Insulin Action

1. Onset 1 hour
2. Peaks 6-12 hours
3. Lasts 20-24 hours

28

Intermediate RN Implication

1. Cloudy solution
2. Rotate prior to use

29

Name 2 Long Acting Insulin

1. Glargine (Lantus)
2. Detemir (Levemir)

30

Lantus Action

1. Onset in 1 hour
2. No peak
3. Lasts 24 hours

31

Lantus RN Implication

1. Clear solution
2. DO NOT MIX C OTHERS

32

Levemir Action

1. Onset 3-4 hours
2. No peak
3. Lasts 24 hours

33

Levemir RN Implication

1. Clear solution
2. DO NOT MIX C OTHERS