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Flashcards in Dialysis- Final Exam Deck (84)
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31

Long-term kidneys problems have significant repercussions on other diseases such as what?

Cardiovascular disease

32

Ultrafilters/ Hemoconcentrators

Removed total body water on the principle of hydrostatic pressure gradients

33

What is used to treat renal failure?

Dialysis; removal of diffusable solutes based on the principle of concentration gradient and solute drag established by dialysate solution

34

Describe the diffusion of molecules.

Spread evenly

35

How do you control water?

Controlling transport of sodium

36

Solvent drag

influence exerted by a flow of solvent through a membrane on the simultaneous movement of a solute through the membrane

37

Types of dialyzers

Coil
Parallel Plate
Hollow fiber

38

Describe the blood compartment of a coil dialyzer.

Blood compartment consisted of one or two long membrane tubes placed between support screen and wound around a plastic core

39

Why are coil dialyzers restricted in use?

Serious performance limitations; coil design did not produce uniform dialysate flow distribution across the membrane

40

Describe the setup of a parallel plate dialyzer.

Sheets of membrane are mounted on plastic support screens, and then stacked in multiple layers range from 2 or 20 or more.

41

What do parallel plate dialyzers allow?

Multiple parallel blood and dialysate flow channels (lower resistance to flow)

42

Major improvements in parallel plate dialyzer allow what (3)?

1. Thinner blood and dialysate channels with uniform dimensions
2. Minimal masking or blocking of membranes on the support
3. Minimal stretching or deformation of membranes across the supports

43

What dialyzer has the most effective design?

Hollow Fiber Dialyzer

44

Describe the design of the hollow fiber dialyzer.

Low-volume high efficiency with low resistance to flow. Fiber bundle are potted in polyurethane at each end of the fiber bundle in the tube sheet, which serves as the membrane support.

45

__________ machines offer tremendous flexibility in adjusting dialysis regimens.

Hemodialysis

46

What type of system do hemodialysis machines use?

Single pass system where the dialysate circulates through the dialyzer once and is then discarded

47

What 3 components do all dialysis systems require?

1. Dialysate Heater (to warm to body temp)
2. Dialysate pump/flow meter (regulate rate of delivery)
3. Sensors/alarms (pressure, temp, conductivity, air or blood leaks)

48

Dialysis Types

Hemodialysis
Peritoneal Dialysis

49

When dialyzing, patient blood is on one side and what type of solution is on the other side?

Hypotonic solution (dialysate)

50

What creates movement of molecules across membrane in hemodialysis?

Movement from hypertonic blood to hypotonic solution (dialysate)

51

What substances in the blood decrease in hemodialysis?

BUN, creatinine, electrolytes

52

HOw can fluid pass through semipermeable filter membrane in hemodialysis?

By applying suction on the far side of the membrane

53

What creates a transmembrane pressure gradient?

Vacuum

54

What happens when you use vacuum?; What is meant by convective transport or solvent drag?

Small solute molecules get dragged out through the membrane pores along with the water

55

Convective Flux

The movement of solutes through the membrane ("convective flux") is calculatable

56

Almost all single-patient hemodialysis machines use a ______________, where the dialysate circulates through the dialyzer once and is then discarded.

Single-pass system

57

What temperature should the dialysate be?

Body temp, 37

58

What is more effective: peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis?

Peritoneal dialysis

59

When is peritoneal dialysis effective?

Very labile cardiac states
Tx of choice in kids

60

What is an advantage of peritoneal dialysis?

Allows more patient freedom