Diseases Conditions And Procedures (Blood, Lymph, Immune) Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Diseases Conditions And Procedures (Blood, Lymph, Immune) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases Conditions And Procedures (Blood, Lymph, Immune) Deck (27):
1

Aplastic

Failure of bone marrow to produce stem cells because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs; rare but serious form of anemia

2

Pernicious

Deficiency of erythrocytes resulting from inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body, which plays a vital role in hematopoiesis

3

Thalassemia

Group of hereditary anemia so caused by an inability to produce hemoglobin; usually seen in people of Mediterranean origin
[thalass/o=sea; -emia=blood condition]

4

Hemophilia

Group of hereditary bleeding disorder characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of blood
[hem/o=blood; -philia=attraction for]

5

Leukemia

Malignant disease of the bone marrow characterized by excessive production of leukocytes
[leuk/o=white; -emia=blood condition]

6

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Transmissible infection caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and associated with suppression of the immune system; characterized by increasing susceptibility to infections, malignancies, and neurological diseases

7

Hodgkin lymphoma

Malignant disease originating in the lymphocytes (part of the body's immune system) that occurs most often in young adults and characterized by the presence of unique Reed-Sternberg cells (malignant cells) in the lymph nodes; also called Hodgkin disease

8

Immunodeficiency disease

Any of a group of diseases caused by a defect in the immune system and generally characterized by susceptibility to infections and chronic diseases

9

Kaposi Sarcoma

Malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue, that is commonly fatal (because the tumors readily metastasize to various organs) and closely associated with AIDS
[sarc=flesh (connective tissue); -oma =tumor]

10

Lymphadenitis

Inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection
[lymph=lymph; Aden=gland; -itis=inflammation]

11

Lymphedema

Debilitating condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a blockage in the lymphatic system that prevents lymph fluid in the upper limbs from draining adequately
[lymph=lymph; -edema=swelling]

12

Mononucleosis

Acute infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph node
[mono-one; nucle= nucleus; -osis; abnormal condition]

13

Multiple myeloma

Aligning disease of bone marrow plasma cells (antibody-producing B lymphocytes)

14

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

A group of more than 20 different types of lymphomas (except Hodgkin lymphoma) that occur in older adults but are not characterized by Reed-Sternberg cells (malignant cells)
[lymph=lymph; -oma =tumor]

15

Opportunistic infection

Any infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend against pathogens normally found in the environment

16

Stroke

Sudden loss of neurological function, caused by vascular injury (loss of blood flow) to an area of the brain; also known as CVA

17

Anemia

Blood disorder characterized by a deficiency of red blood cell production and hemoglobin, increased red blood cell destruction, or blood loss.
[an=without, not; -emia=blood condition]

18

Bone marrow aspiration

Removal of a small amount of tissue (bone marrow biopsy) to diagnose blood disorders (e.g. Anemias), cancers, or infectious diseases or to gather cells for later infusion into a patient (bone marrow transplantation)

19

Complete blood count (CBC)

Series of blood tests to determine general health status as well as screening for infection, anemias, and other diseases

20

Lymphangiography

Radiographic examination of lymph glands and lymphatic vessels after an injection of a contrast medium to view the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region
[lymph=lymph; angi/o=vessel; -graphy=process of recording]

21

Tissue typing

Technique used to determine the history partiality of tissues; used in grafts and transplants with the recipient's tissues and cells; also known as "histocompatibility testing"

22

Western blot

Test to detect presence of viral DNA in the blood and used to confirm the diagnosis of AIDS as well as detecting other viruses

23

Blood transfusion

Administration of whole blood or a component, such as packed red cells, to replace blood lost through trauma, surgery, or disease

24

Bone marrow transplant

Diseased bone marrow is destroyed by irradiation and chemotherapy and replaced from a healthy donor to simulate production of normal blood cells; used to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and certain cancers

25

Lymphangiectomy

Removal of a lymph vessel

26

Sickle Cell Anemia

Hereditary form of anemia in which there is a deficiency of healthy RBCs to carry adequate oxygen throughout the body. [RBCs are flexible and round and move easily though blood vessels] Sickle cells anemia is characterized by crescent- or sickle-shaped erythrocytes that a become rigid and sticky. Theses irregularly shaped cells have a tendency to get stuck in small blood vessels which slows down or blocks blood flow and oxygen to various parts of the body. Impaired circulation because of sickle cell anemia may cause chronic ill health, periodic crises, long-term complications, and premature death. Sickle cell anemia is highest among African Americans and people of Mediterranean ancestry. No cure. Treatment is palliative, relieves pain and prevents further exacerbations.

27

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

"Lupus" is an autoimmune disease characterized by usually antibodies in the blood that inflame and damage connective tissues anywhere in the body. Occurs in skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and typically results in a butterfly rash that paeans on the face. Affects women more than men and is usually diagnosed between 15-45yo. Exact cause is unknown, it is thought to be genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors may predispose a person. Events that precipitate SLE: stress, immunization reactions, pregnancy, overexposure to UV light. Symptoms: fatigue, low-grade fever, anorexia, weight loss, photosensitivity, arthralgia, myalgia, hair loss, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, Raynaud phenomenon. (Circulatory disorder of the fingers and toes). Treatment: anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin), anti malarial drugs, immune suppressants, rest, stress reduction, avoiding the sun, regular exercise to prevent fatigue and joint stiffness, and stop smoking.

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