Diseases Conditions Procedures (Nervous) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases Conditions Procedures (Nervous) Deck (31):


Progressive, irreversible deterioration of mental function marked by memory impairment and, commonly, deficits in reasoning, judgement, abstract thought, comprehension, learning, talk execution, and use of language


Alzheimer disease

Chronic, organic brain syndrome characterized by death of neurons in the cerebral cortex and their replacement by microscopic "plaques", which results in dementia the progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, and physical functioning and personality changes



Disorder that results from the generation of electrical signals inside the brain, causing recurring seizures in which some people simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, whereas other have extreme convulsions


Huntington chorea

Inherited, degenerative disease of the CNS with symptoms developing in middle age as nerve cells in the brain waste away, resulting in uncontrolled bizarre movements, emotional disturbances, and mental deterioration



Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles of the brain that is most common in neonates, but can also occur in adults as a result of injury or disease; if left untreated, causes an enlarged head and cognitive decline
[hydro=water; cephal=head; -us=condition, structure]


Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Progressive degenerative disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, hardening, and looks of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain, which produces weakness and other muscular symptoms
[scler=hardening; -osis=abnormal condition]



Malignant tumor composed mainly of cells resembling neur oblasts that occurs most commonly in infants and children
[neur/o=nerve; blast=embryonic cell; -Oma=tumor]



Nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
[neur/o=nerve; -osis=abnormal condition]



Partial or complete loss of motor function; aka "paralysis"


Bell palsy

Facial paralysis on one side of the face as a result of inflammation of the facial nerve


Cerebral palsy

Bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction and partial paralysis, which is usually caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth trauma but can also be hereditary
[cerebr=cerebrum; -al =pertaining to]



Loss of muscle function, loss of sensation, or both as a result of spinal cord injury
[para-=near, beside, beyond; -lysis=separation, destruction, loosening]


Parkinson disease

Progressive neurological disorder caused by a neurotransmitter deficiency (dopamine) that affects the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement and results in hand tremors; uncontrollable head nodding; shuffling gait; and difficulty talking, swallowing, or completing simple tasks



Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
[poli/o=gray, gray matter (of brain or spinal cord); myel=bone marrow, spinal cord; -itis=inflammation]



Mental disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations
[psych/o=mind; -osis=abnormal condition]



Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, which travels from the hip to the foot



Chronic viral disease in which painful blisters appear on the skin along the course of a peripheral nerve that is caused by inflammation secondary to "herpes zoster" virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox; aka "herpes zoster"


Spina bifida

Congenital neural tube defect characterized by incomplete closure of the spinal canal through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude


Spina bifida occulta

Most common and least severe from of spina bifida without having protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges


Spina bifida cystica

More severe type of spina bifida that involves protrusion of the meninges (meningocele), spinal cord (myelocele), or both (meningomyelocele)



Inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the brain due to a clot or ruptured blood vessel (hemorrhage), which allows brain tissue to die and becomes a medical emergency; aka "Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)"


Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Interruption in blood supply to the brain that does not cause permanent brain damage but may be an indication of a higher risk of a more serious and debilitating condition (stroke); aka "ministroke"


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Laboratory test that examines a sample of CSF obtained from a lumbar puncture, which is analyzed for the presence of blood, bacteria, and malignant cells as well as for the amount of protein and glucose present
[cerebr/o=cerebrum; spin=spine; -al=pertaining to]



Electrodes are placed on the scalp to record electrical activity within the brain; used to evaluate seizure and sleep disorders and periods of unconsciousness, monitor brain surgeries, and determine whether a person is in a coma or brain dead
[electr/o=electricity; encephal/o=brain; -graphy=process of recording


Lumbar puncture (LP)

Insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal column to withdraw a sample of CSF used for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological laboratory analysis; aka "Spinal tap" or "Spinal puncture"
[lumb=loins (lower back); -ar=pertaining to]



Surgical procedure that creates an opening in the skull to gain access to the brain during neurosurgical procedures
[crani/o=cranium (skull); -tomy=incision]



Partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain
[thalam/o=thalamus; -tomy=incision]



Excision of a circular disk of bone using a specialized saw called a trephine to reveal brain tissue during neurosurgery, or to relieve intracranial pressure (ICP)


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Degenerative disorder that manifests in adulthood with symptoms of difficulty in swallowing and talking, dyspnea, muscle weakness, and paralysis; aka "Lou Gehrig Disease" (named after the baseball player who because afflicted with ALS)


Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN)

Neuropathic pain syndrome that involves the facial area stimulated by the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve V). Results in flashes of pain radiating alon the course of the nerve and is the most common cause of facial pain. Unilateral, abrupt, brief but severe pain, become more frequent over time; successive occurrences can lead to incapacitation. Pain may arise spontaneously but often associated with particular triggers, such as sensory stimulus. Trigeminal nerve branches stimulate areas of the face, including the forehead, nose, cheek, gums, and jaw. Irritation or chronic compression of the nerve is suspected to initiate symptoms. Most cases of TN are believed to be caused by blood vessels pressing on the root of the trigeminal nerve; causes the nerve to transmit pain signals which are experienced as the stabbing pains. Pressure on the trigeminal nerve may also be caused by trauma, tumor, multiple sclerosis, or herpes zoster (shingles). More often in women and usually around 50-60yo. Most respond well to pharmacological therapy; those who do not require surgical intervention to relieve pain. Nerve function of the affected nerve may be compromised as a result. Gamma Knife radio surgery is an option; creates a lesion on the nerve to block pain signals.


Spinal cord injuries

*vertebral fracture/dislocation: severe injuries to the spinal cord that result in impairment of spinal cord function below the level of the injury. Commonly result of trauma, MVA, falls, diving in shallow water, or accidents associated with contact sports. May cause varying degrees of paralysis. Most commonly seen in adolescent boys and young adults. The loss of motor functions may be confined to the lower extremities (paraplegia) or may be present in all four extremities (quadriplegia) accompanied by increased muscular tension and hyperactive reflexes (spastic) or by loss of reflexes and tone (flaccid).
*paraplegia: paralysis of lower portion of the body and both legs. Loss of sensory and motor control below the level of injury
*quadriplegia: paralysis of all four extremities and, usually the trunk. Generally results in loss of motor and sensory function below the level of injury. Paralysis includes trunk, legs, and pelvic organs with partial or total paralysis in the upper extremities.

**The higher the trauma, the more debilitating the motor and sensory impairments will be.

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