Flashcards in DPT 611: Research in Physical Therapy Deck (84)

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1

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Mrs. Smith is writing her daily observations of a student and writes, without interpretation, that the student is not completing the class work and is constantly speaking out of turn. Which of the following objectives does she appear to be using?

a. prediction

b. description

c. explanation

d. exploration

### B

2

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Which of the following is a form of research typically conducted by teachers, counselors, and other professionals to answer questions they have and to specifically help them solve local problems?

a. action research

b. basic research

c. predictive research

d. longitudinal research

### A

3

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How much confidence should you place in a single research study?

a. you should completely trust a single research study.

b. you should trust research findings after different researchers have found the same findings

c. neither a nor b

d. both a and b

### C

4

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The development of a solid foundation of reliable knowledge typically is built from which type of research?

a. basic research

b. action research

c. evaluation research

d. longitudinal research

### A

5

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Which form of reasoning is the process of drawing a specific conclusion from a set of premises?

a. rationalism

b. deductive reasoning

c. inductive reasoning

d. probabilistic

### B

6

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A researcher designs an experiment to test how variables interact to influence how well children learn spelling words. In this case, the main purpose of the study was:

a. Explanation

b. Description

c. Influence

d. Prediction

### D

7

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Which scientific method is a top-down or confirmatory approach?

a. Deductive method

b. Inductive method

c. Hypothesis method

d. Pattern method

### A

8

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Which scientific method is a bottom-up or generative approach to research?

a. Deductive method

b. Inductive method

c. Hypothesis method

d. Pattern method

### B

9

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Which scientific method focuses on testing hypotheses developed from theories?

a. Deductive method

b. Inductive method

c. Hypothesis method

d. Pattern method

### A

10

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Which scientific method often focuses on generating new hypotheses and theories?

a. Deductive method

b. Inductive method

c. Hypothesis method

d. Pattern method

### B

11

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Which of the following statements is true of a theory?

a. it most simply means “explanation”

b. it answers the “how” and “why” questions

c. it can be a well developed explanatory system

d. all of the above are correct

### D

12

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Approximately what percentage of scores fall within one standard deviation of the mean in a normal distribution?

a. 34%

b. 95%

c. 99%

d. 68%

### D

13

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The denominator (bottom) of the z-score formula is

a. The standard deviation

b. The difference between a score and the mean

c. The range

d. The mean

### A

14

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. The standard deviation is:

a. The square root of the variance

b. A measure of variability

c. An approximate indicator of how numbers vary from the mean

d. All of the above

### D

15

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True or False

Hypothesis testing and estimation are both types of descriptive statistics.

### False

16

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True or False

A set of data organized in a participants(rows)-by-variables(columns) format is known as a “data set.”

### True

17

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A graph that uses vertical bars to represent data is called a ____.

a. Line graph

b. Bar graph

c. Scatterplot

d. Vertical graph

### B

18

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The goal of ___________ is to focus on summarizing and explaining a specific set of data.

a. Inferential statistics

b. Descriptive statistics

c. None of the above

d. All of the above

### B

19

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The most frequently occurring number in a set of values is called the ____.

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

### C

20

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As a general rule, the _______ is the best measure of central tendency because it is more precise.

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

### A

21

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Focusing on describing or explaining data versus going beyond immediate data and making inferences is the difference between _______.

a. Central tendency and common tendency

b. Mutually exclusive and mutually exhaustive properties

c. Descriptive and inferential

d. Positive skew and negative skew

### C

22

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Why are variance and standard deviation the most popular measures of variability?

a. They are the most stable and are foundations for more advanced statistical analysis

b. They are the most simple to calculate with large data sets

c. They provide nominally scaled data

d. None of the above

### A

23

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____________ is the set of procedures used to explain or predict the values of a dependent variable based on the values of one or more independent variables.

a. Regression analysis

b. Regression coefficient

c. Regression equation

d. Regression line

### A

24

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The ______ is the value you calculate when you want the arithmetic average.

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. All of the above

### A

25

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___________ are used when you want to visually examine the relationship between two quantitative variables.

a. Bar graphs

b. Pie graphs

c. Line graphs

d. Scatterplots

### D

26

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The _______ is often the preferred measure of central tendency if the data are severely skewed.

a. Mean

b. Median

c. Mode

d. Range

### B

27

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Which of the following is the formula for range?

a. H + L

b. L x H

c. L - H

d. H – L

### D

28

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Which is a raw score that has been transformed into standard deviation units?

a. z score

b. SDU score

c. t score

d. e score

### A

29

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Which of the following is NOT a measure of variability?

a. Median

b. Variance

c. Standard deviation

d. Range

### A

30