Flashcards in DPT 630: Medical Physiology Deck (100)
The ______ processes almost all sensory information going to the cerebral cortex and almost all motor information coming from the cerebral cortex to the brain and spinal cord.
a. Spinal cord
The process of conversion of a stimulus (e.g. sound waves, pressure) into electrochemical energy is called sensory _____.
In the sensory pathway, the _____ order neuron crosses to the collateral side.
True or False
Relay nuclei process the information they receive via local interneurons, which may be excitatory or inhibitory
Olfactory receptor is a ______.
Receptor potentials are ______ electronic potentials, whose amplitude correlates with the size of the stimulus.
a. All or none
True or False
Smaller the receptor field, the more precisely the sensation be localized or identified
Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors are designed to encode _____ and ______ of stimulus.
a. Onset; offset
b. Duration; intensity
If the skin temperature rises to damaging levels (above 45⁰C) then _____ get activated.
a. Polymodal nociceptors
Visual acuity is highest at the central point of the retina called the ______.
True or False
Rods are sensitive to low-intensity light
Vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness because vitamin A is required for regeneration of _____.
a. Metarhodopsin II
b. Cyclic GMP
c. 11-cis rhodopsin
The right optic tract is formed by fibers from the _____ nasal hemiretina and _____ temporal hemiretina.
a. Left; right
b. Right; right
c. Left; left
d. Right; left
Three ossicles of the middle ear include all of the following except:
Vestibular organs which help maintain equilibrium and balance included all the below except:
c. Semicircular canal
d. Organ of Corti
The _______ predict that disequilibrium is going to occur.
b. Semicircular canals
True or False
The motoneuron pool is the set of motoneurons innervating fibers within the same muscle
Gamma motoneurons innervate _____ muscle fibers
The knee jerk reflex is a _____ spinal cord reflex
A _____ hemianopsia is the loss of half of the visual field on the same side in both eyes.
Impedance matching is accomplished which of the following? (choose 2)
a. Inertia of the endolymph
b. Stiffness of the basilar membrane
c. Ratio of the large surface area of the tympanic membrane of the small surface area of the oval window
d. Mechanical advantage offered by the lever system of the ossicles
C and D
Bending the sterocilia in the direction of the kinocilium causes membrane _____.
Plateau seen during the action potential of the ventricular muscle is due to the balancing act of the inward (ECF to ICF) _____ current to the outward (ICF to ECF) ______ current.
a. Potassium; Sodium
b. Calcium; Sodium
c. Sodium; Calcium
d. Calcium; Potassium
In case of SA node action potential, the upstroke (phase 0) caused by the inward _____ current.
In case of SA node action potential, the spontaneous depolarization (phase 4) caused by the inward _____ current.
Latent pacemakers include all of the below except:
a. SA Node
b. Bundle of His
c. Purkinje Fibers
d. AV Node
Match the following
Inotropic effect --> ______
Chronotropic effect --> ______
QRS Complex --> ______
Preload for the ventricles --> ______
P wave --> ______
Afterload for the ventricles --> ______
T wave --> ______
• End-diastolic volume
• Effect on contractility
• Effect on HR
• Aortic pressure
• Represents ventricular depolarization
• Represents atrial depolarization
• Represents ventricular repolarization
• Inotropic effect: Effect on contractility
• Chronotropic effect: Effect on HR
• QRS Complex: Represents ventricular depolarization
• Preload for the ventricles: End-diastolic volume
• P wave: Represents atrial depolarization
• Afterload for the ventricles: aortic pressure
• T wave: Represents ventricular repolarization
Cardiac glycoside increases contractility in the heart muscle by blocking Na+ - K+ ATPase and increasing the ______ concentration inside the cell.
In the normal physiologic range, as the length of the muscle fiber increases the tension/pressure developed in the cardiac muscle fiber ____
b. Stays the same