Flashcards in DPT 632: Neuroanatomy Deck (123)
Which of the following correctly label the structure indicated by the question mark in figure 1?
The name and function of the structure labeled as the question mark in Figure 2?
a. Postcentral gyrus; primary motor cortex
b. precentral gyrus; primary motor cortex
c. postcentral gyrus; primary sensory cortex
The function of the brainstem-cerebellar region is to:
a. convey information between the cerebrum and spinal cord and control vital functions such as heart rate and respiration
b. be involved in motor control, sensory processing memory, reasoning, and verbal and/or nonverbal communication
c. convey information from sensory receptors into the CNS and from the CNS to skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
d. convey somatosensory information to the brain and convey signals from the brain to neurons that directly control movement
Depolarization occurs when:
a. the membrane potential becomes less negative than the resting membrane potential
b. the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting membrane potential
c. the presynaptic terminal of a neuron is inhibited by another neuron
d. all membrane channels are closed preventing the influx of Na+
Which of the following is a feature of the nodes of Ranvier?
a. are distributed approximately every 1-2 mm along the membrane of the cell axon
b. contain a high density of modality gated K+ channels for rapid depolarization of the membrane
c. contain a high density of voltage gated Na+ channels for rapid repolarization of the membrane
d. have low membrane capacitance, preventing the accumulation of electrical charge
Damage to myelin sheath (demyelination) of an axon:
a. results in decreased membrane resistance, allowing a leakage of electrical current
b. results in slowed propagation of action potentials
c. may prevent propagation of action potentials
d. all of the above
Afferent neurons convey information:
a. between interneurons
b. from the CNS to skeletal muscles
c. from peripheral receptors to the CNS
d. between the soma and presynaptic terminal
What type of stimulus is required to open a ligand-gated channel?
a. mechanical force, temperature change, or chemical stimulus
b. no stimulus required
What are the differences between conductive deafness and sensonneural deafness?
a. No differences exist
b. acoustic trauma, ototoxicdrugs, or disease cause conduction deafness, excessive wax in the outer ear orotitis media cause sensonneural deafness
c. Conduction deafness involves the outer or middle ear, sensonneural deafness involves the receptors and/or cochlear nerve
d. conduction deafness involves the cochlear nerve, senonneural deafness involves the outer or middle ear
Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT involved in regulating the function of autonomic nervous system?
a. Cranial nerve III
b. Cranial nerve V
c. Cranial nerve VII
d. Cranial nerve IX
What is the function of the Optic CN?
Conducts sensory signal from receptors of the eye
What is the function of the Glossopharyngeal CN?
Sensory innervation of the pharynx, soft palate, and posterior tongue
What is the function of the Trochlear CN?
Motor innervation of the superior oblique
What is the function of the Trigeminal CN?
Sensory innervation of face and temperomandibular joint (TMJ), motor innervation to muscles for chewing
Cranial nerve nuclei in the pons are involved in which of the following?
a. Processing somatosensory information from the face
b. controlling lateral movement of the eyes
c. controlling the muscles of facial expressin and mastication
d. A and B
e. A, B and C
The anterior (basilar) section of the brainstem contains which of the following?
a. descending axons from the cerebral cortex
b. superior and inferior colliculi
c. reticular formation
d. predominantly sensory pathways
e. all of the above
Deviation of protruded tongue to the side of the lesion indicates damage to which of the following cranial nerves?
a. CN IX
b. CN X
c. CN XI
d. CN XII
Which of the following is/are controlled by the oculomotor nerve?
a. Superior rectus muscle that moves the eye
b. constriction of the pupil of the ye
c. adjusting the shape of the lens of the eye
d. all of the above
What is Bell’s Palsy?
a. Increased sweating and vasodilation on one side of the face
b. contralateral paralysis of the msucles innervated by CN VII
c. ipsilateral paralysis of the muscles innervated by CN VII
d. loss of the consensual reflex
e. severe pain in the facial region near the jaw
Identify the location(s) of the lesion that may cause diplopia (double vision)
a. Oculomotor nerve
b. Trochlear Nerve
d. All of the above
Hyperpolarization of receptor cells of the right posterior semicircular canal would be associated with depolarization (excitation) of the ______________.
a. Right anterior semicircular canal
b. Left posterior semicircular canal
c. Left horizontal semicircular canal
d. Left anterior semicircular canal
Vestibular connections influence which of the following?
a. Posture of the hand and body
b. Head and eye movements
d. Autonomic functions
e. All of the above
The path of the optic nerve passes from the __________ to the ___________
a. Retina; optic chiasm
b. Optic chiasm; lateral geniculate
c. Cortex; retina
d. Retina; lateral geniculate
Dysfunction of what area of the brain is noted by the four Ds (dysphagia, dysarthria, diplopia, dysmetria)?
a. Dysfunction of the medulla
b. Dysfunction of the thalamus
c. Dysfunction of the brainstem
d. All of the above
What is the most common symptoms of vestibular dysfunction?
a. Nausea and vomiting
c. Limb ataxia
d. Upward beat nystagmus
What symptom might be caused by ischemia in the brainstem region?
b. Visual Disorders
d. All of the above
The Hallpike maneuver was designed to:
a. Elicit the vestibule-ocular reflex
b. Treat dizziness associated with central vestibular lesions
c. Provoke maximal movement of otoconia in the posterior semicircular canals
d. Rupture of the cupula
What is the name off the disorder characterized by loss of visual stabilization
What is the name off the disorder characterized by acute onset of vertigo and nystagmus in response to rapid change of head position
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo