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Flashcards in Drug Administration Deck (10):
1

Drugs administered via rectal route

aspirin, theophylline, chlorpromazine, barbituarites

2

Drug given via vaginal route

clotrimazole (antifungal)

3

Drugs given via transdermal patches & a limitation of patches

scopalamine, nicotine, opioids

patches are limited by how quickly the drug can penetrate the skin

4

Phase 1 of Clinical Testing:
1. what is tested?
2. on whom is it tested?

1. effects of the drug as function of dosage, NOT efficacy
2. healthy volunteers, small # (25-50)

Exception: drugs with significant toxicity, can be tested on patients i.e. AIDS or cancer

5

Phase 2 of Clinical Testing:
1. what is tested?
2. on whom is it tested?

1. efficacy and safety are determined
2. for the first time on patients, small # (100-200)
3. single blind design used

6

Phase 3 of Clinical Testing:
1. what is tested?
2. on whom is it tested?

1. efficacy, safety & toxicities are studied
2. much larger number of patients (sometimes 1000s)
3. double blind design used

7

Phase 4 of Clinical Testing:
1. what is tested?
2. on whom is it tested?

1. monitoring the safety of the new drug under actual conditions of use
2. very large # of patients
3. post-marketing surveillance is very important!

8

Drugs that need therapeutic drug management & what is it?

Drugs that work best over a small range. Below this range the drug isn't effective & above this is toxic

1. Cardiac Drugs: digoxin, quinidine, procainamide
2. Antibiotics: aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin)
3. Antiepileptics: phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid, carbamazepine, ethosuximide,
4. Psychiatric Drugs: lithium, desipramine

9

Alkaloids. What is it & name examples

water insoluble, nitrogen containing basic drugs. When combined with acids will form water soluble salt

Ex) Morphine, codine, atropine, pilocarpine, quinine, scopolamine

10

Glycosides

digoxin, strophanthin