E2 Order Actinomycetales Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E2 Order Actinomycetales Deck (42)
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1

What are the 3 important families in this order Actinomycetales?

1. Actinomycetaceae
2. Mycobacteriaceae
3. Nocardiaceae

2

What is the gram stain of the order Actinomycetales?

Gram-positive

3

What is unique about the appearance of the order Actinomycetales?

Long branching filamentous rods
Sometimes beaded
(mycelia)

4

What are some culture characteristics of the family actinomycetaceae?

1. Microaerophilic
2. NOT-acid fast
3. Formation of sulfur granules (rosetts)

5

What are sulfur granules composed of?

1. Bacterial filaments
2. Calcium phosphate from the host

6

What are some characteristics of actinomycetaceae family infections?

1. Chronic
2. Soft & hard tissues
3. Often with foreign bodies

7

What species has actinomyces bacteria as normal flora? Where?

Dog
Oropharynx & digestive tract

8

What are the clinical signs when a dog has an overgrowth of actinomyces bacteria?

Soft tissue swellings with sulfur granules
(head & neck)

9

What are some clinical presentations of actinomyces infections in cats (3)? Which one is most common?

1. Bite wound abscess
2. Pyothorax = most common
3. Peritonitis

10

How can an actinomyces infection lead to pyothorax?

Deep chest wound

11

What type of antibiotics work well against actinomyces?

Penicillins

12

Is actinomyces normal flora in cattle? If so where?

Yes
Oral cavity
But can be opportunistic invaders of deep tissues

13

What is the name for the disease caused by actinomyces in cattle?

Lumpy Jaw

14

What is actinomyces infection associated with in cattle?

Foreign bodies

15

What two diseases does actinomyces cause in horses?

1. Fistulous withers
2. Poll evil

16

What two diseases can actinomyces cause in swine although rare?

1. Suppurative mastitis
2. Cystitis in older sows

17

What pathological process occurs in cattle with actinomyces infections?

Proliferative osteomyelitis

18

Is there a vaccine for actinomyces bovis?

No

19

What is another genus of the actinomycetaceae family?

Arcanobacterium

20

What is the only species of arcanobacterium of veterinary importance?

Arcanobacterium pyogenes

21

What role does arcanobacterium pyogenes play in animal health?

Commensal of the skin, upper respiratory tract and genitals

22

What diseases can arcanobacterium pyogenes cause if it enters deep tissues (4)?

1. Mastitis
2. Arthritis (green caseous pus)
3. Placentitis
4. Polyarthritis

23

What is another genus of gram-positive filamentous bacteria?

Nocardia

24

Where is Nocardia typically found?

Soil

25

What is special about Nocardia's metabolism?

Obligate aerobe

26

What is the most important veterinary species of Nocardia?

Nocardia asteroides

27

How does Nocardia asteroides cause infections?

1. Dirt in wounds
2. Inhalation
3. Ingestion

28

What animals can be infected with Nocardia asteroides?

Mammals
(rare in birds)

29

What cells are infected by Nocardia asteroides?

Phagocytes

30

What disease does Nocardia asteroides cause in cattle?

Mastitis