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Flashcards in ECG Deck (62):
1

pacemaker rate at the SA node

60-100

2

pacemaker rate @ AV node

40-55

3

pacemaker rate @ bundle of His, bundle branches, purkinje fibers

25-40

4

normal P wave duration

0.06-0.11

5

normal QRS complex duration

0.07-0.11

6

normal PR interval duration

0.12-0.2

7

ventricular myocyte repolarization (phase 3)

T wave

8

the entire action potential for the ventricular myocytes (depolarization- plateau- repolarization)

QT interval

9

ventricular myocyte plateau phase (phase 2)

ST segment

10

ECG interpretation - top 4 questions

1. are there P waves?
2. is there a P wave following every QRS?
3. what is pacing the heart?
4. what does each deflection look like?

11

axis: 0 degrees

lead I

12

axis: 60 degrees

lead II

13

axis: 120 degrees

lead III

14

axis: -30 degrees

avL

15

axis: 90 degrees

avF

16

axis: -150 degrees

avR

17

precordial lead placement: right 4th interspace, adjacent to sternum

V1

18

precordial lead placement: left 4th interspace adjacent to the sternum

V2

19

precordial lead placement: positioned halfway between V2 and V4

V3

20

precordial lead placement: the 5th interspace on the midclavicular line;

V4

21

precordial lead placement: placed directly lateral to V4 with V5 on the anterior axillary line and V6 on the midaxillary line.

V5, V6

22

which segment is roughly coincident with phase 2 of the AP?

ST segment

23

that point where the QRS joins the ST segment with an angle normally about 90°

The J point

24

which pacemaker is not included in the PR interval?

the SA node

25

why is the t wave and the qrs upright?

b/c the myocardium repolarizes in the opposite direction from the depolarization event

26

waves and complexes analysis consists of what?

1. Duration
2. Amplitude
3. Morphology
4. Vector

27

p waves are always negative in ______

aVR

28

what is the best lead to look at p waves?

lead 2

29

tall p waves in lead 2 & V1 associated with what abnormality?

right atrial conduction abnormality

30

notched p waves in lead 2 associated with what abnormality?

left atrial conduction abnormality

31

PR interval >0.2 sec

1st degree AV block

32

what can cause the PR interval to prolong?

increases with age

33

what does the QT interval represent?

the time that it takes the entire heart to cycle 1x

34

how to measure QT interval

beginning to QRS to end of T wave

35

axis determination: if lead 1 & aVF positive?

axis is normal

36

axis determination: if lead 1 is positive, aVF is negative

axis if leftward

37

axis determination: is lead 1 is negative, aVF is positive

axis is rightward

38

tall pointy p wave in lead 2?

right atrial abnormality

39

people with ____BBB have a worse CV prognosis than ppl who don't

LBBB

40

results in broad QS in V1 and broad, slurred R wave in V6;

LBBB

41

shows broad QRS with an rSR’ pattern in V1 and deep, broad S wave in V6.

RBBB

42

how many fascicles in right bundle?

1

43

Left axis, at least –45 degrees, QRS

Left Anterior Fascicular Block

44

Right axis, usually +120 or more, normal QRS, no evidence or RVH

Left Posterior Fascicular Block

45

what are the most common types of trivascicular blocks?

RBBB + LAFB + 1st degree AV block

46

if block in all fascicles is complete?

3rd degree AV block

47

PR interval >0.2, unrelated to ischemic heart disease & generally benign

first degree AV block

48

PR interval, usually normal, progressively lengthens until AV conduction is lost; Grouped QRS complexes, longest cycle is less than twice the length of the shortest cycle;

2nd degree AV block Type 1: “the Wenckebach phenomenon

49

which type almost always includes a BBB, includes dropping of the QRS without prolongation of PR interval

2nd degree AV block type 2

50

which type of 2nd degree AV block has a worse prognosis?

type 2

51

what are the 3 main determinants of myocardial oxygen demand?

HR, contractility, myocardial wall tension

52

which layer of the myocardium is most susceptible to damage?

subendocardial layer

53

pre-excitation plus the classic supraventricular arrhythmia

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

54

ECG result is a short PR interval (

ventricular pre-excitation

55

what is the most common cause of a pause on an ECG?

nonconducted atrial premature

56

ventricular prematures that occur in the ________ventricle are more commonly associated with heart disease

LEFT VPD

57

is a fib or a flutter faster & irregularly irregular?

atrial fib

58

what is the Most common arrhythmia in US

a fib

59

common in healthy young people, related to anxiety, excess caffeine, fatigue

reentrant junctional tachyarrhytmias

60

if apply carotid sinus massage to sinus tach, what happens?

can break the rhythm

61

if apply carotid sinus massage to atrial flutter

doesn't convert, but brings out the flutter waves

62

if apply carotid sinus massage to reentrant jxnal tachycardia?

converts to sinus rhythm