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Flashcards in Economic inequality pt 2 Deck (42):
1

Negatives of aid

Countries become dependent on aid
Corruption - aid can be stolen
Tied aid - richer country can benefit mire
More spending on arms and weapons

2

Ireland's aid programme Bilateral aid - Ethiopia

€26 mil in 2013
One of poorest countries in world
Irish Aid since 1994
Focuses on: Food security, Health, Education, HIV/AIDS, Governance

3

Ireland's aid programme - Bilateral aid to Ethiopia
Food security

Work for food programme - exchange labour for food or wages, saves lives - 7 mil from starvation.
Supports work to provide sustainable food supply

4

Ireland's aid programme - Bilateral aid to Ethiopia
Health

€16 mil on health centres, vaccinations, drugs, school supplies
Construction of water pipes and wells

5

Ireland's aid programme - Bilateral aid to Ethiopia
Education

Support for 30,000 healthcare workers - education 9 assistance to ensure babies delivered safely

6

Ireland's aid programme - Bilateral aid to Ethiopia
HIV/AIDs

Estimate 2 mil live with HIV/AIDS
1 mil children orphaned by it
14% Irish aid spent on work against it

7

Ireland's aid programme - Bilateral aid to Ethiopia
Governance

6% Irish aid spent on governance issues
Reforming shstems, supporting human rights, tackling corruption

8

Ireland's aid programme - Multilateral aid

To UN + EU each year
€95.4m to UN, €23m to EU in 2010
Many used in aid programmes

9

Ireland's aid programme - Emergency aid

Philippines in 2010 - tents and blankets to 350,000 homeless people

10

Ireland's aid programme - Ireland's NGOs

Contribute to developing countries
Educate people to provide for own needs
Trócaire, Concern, Bóthar, Goal

11

Positives of aid

Vital in times of natural disaster.
Healthcare and education improve
Relationships and links can be forged
NGOs help up skill local people to help themselves.

12

Factors affecting ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Climate
Rapid population growth
War
Expenditure on weapons

13

Sudan's problems

Climate
Rapid population growth
War
Expenditure on arms

14

Sudan's problems - Climate

North Sudan - desert, little vegetation
South Sudan - little rainfall
Difficult to grow crops & feed people
Drought + famine

15

Sudan's problems - Rapid population growth

High birth rate
Population growing quickly
Only 46% women are literate. Most have at least 4 children

16

Sudan's problems - War

Two ethnic groups, Arab Muslims in north, Christians in south.
Long civil war between two groups 1983-2002
Farming, health, education services distrupted

17

Sudan's problems - Expenditure on arms

Lots of money on weapons spent
1993 gov spent 9 times more on army than on healthcare

18

Economic inequality in EU

Economic inequality present.
Core region (Manchester Milan axis) very wealthy.
Parts of periphery - poorer eg. southern Italy, north + west Ireland, Scotland.
Many new members - poorest countries. Economies have yet to catch up with Western Europe

19

Economic inequality in Ireland

Border Midland Western (BMW) region - poorer
Southern + Eastern - wealthier

20

Why difference exists

Population
Landscape and relief
Infrastructure
Economic activity

21

Economic inequality: Ireland - South and East

Population

High pop. density + immigration
3 mil. people
70% of pop.

22

Economic inequality: Ireland - South and East

Landscape and relief

Mainly lowland
mid climate
fertile soils

23

Economic inequality: Ireland - South and East

Infrastructure

Well-developed networks
Airports - Dublin, Shannon, Cork

24

Economic inequality: Ireland - South and East

Economic activity

95% in service industry
High income + standard of living
Variety of services
Attractive for industry

25

Economic inequality: Ireland - BMW region

Population

Low pop. density
High emigration
1 mil. people
30% of pop.

26

Economic inequality: Ireland - BMW region

Landscape and relief

Mountain regions
Blanket bogland
Heavily leached soils

27

Economic inequality: Ireland - BMW region

Infrastructure

Poor road network
One major airport - Knock
One motorway (Galway to Dublin)

28

Economic inequality: Ireland - BMW region

Economic activity

15% subsistence agriculture
Unproductive farms
Part-time farmers
Lack of services
Unattractive for industry

29

Economic Inequality: Italy

North of Italy - wealthy region
South of Italy (Mezzogiorno) - poor region

30

Economic inequality: Italy - North of Italy

Population

High population density in large urban centres eg. Milan, Turin, Genoa
High in-migration levels

31

Economic inequality: Italy - North of Italy

Landscape and relief

Low-lying land in northern plains
Very fertile soils
Fertile flood plains of River Po
Very profitable + productive cereal-farming industry

32

Economic inequality: Italy - North of Italy

Infrastructure

Good road networks
Excellent rail networks
Several major airports
Good access to markets

33

Economic inequality: Italy - North of Italy

Economic activity

Highly industrialised
Good supply of HEP (hydroelectric power)
Low unemployment in industrial triangle - Milam, Turin, Genoa
High living standard
Good supply of services

34

Economic inequality: Italy - South of Italy (Mezzogiorno)

Population

High out-migration levels
Young educated people leaving
Low population density
Ageing population

35

Economic inequality: Italy - South of Italy (Mezzogiorno)

Landscape and relief

85% mountainous (Apennines)
Poor soils (terra rossa)
Mediterranean climate
Summer drought

36

Economic inequality: Italy - South of Italy (Mezzogiorno)

Infrastructure

Poor infrastructure
Autostrada (motorway) built linking north to south

37

Economic inequality: Italy - South of Italy (Mezzogiorno)

Economic activity

High unemployment levels
Low living standard
Subsistence farming
Cash crops eg. citrus fruits
Industrial triangle - Hari, Brindisi, Taranto
Tourism

38

Cassa per il Mezzogiorno

Funding scheme (fund for the south)
Introduced in 1950s
Irrigation schemes
Autostrada roads built
New airports opened
State-owned companies told to invest
Industrial triangle developed
Recognised as disadvantaged region - receives EU funding

39

Solutions to economic inequality

Aid
Fair trade
Debt

40

Solutions to economic inequality

Aid

Much reach intended targets
Must be focused on education
Tied aid must cease as allows exploitation

41

Solutions to economic inequality

Fair trade

Must receive fair price for products
Exploitation must not be allowed
Abolish taxes on imported goods
Stop child labour, low wages, exploitation of workers

42

Solutions to economic inequality

Debt

Clear loans (developing world owed 500 billion dollars in 2005)
Some countries debt cancelled in 2005
Debt cancellation - positive results in 18 countries
Zambia used savings to invest in health, education, infrastructure