Flashcards in Urbanisation Deck (48):
Growth of Dublin order
19th century Dublin
20th century Dublin
21st century Dublin
The growth of Dublin - Viking Dublin
Began as a viking settlement in 841 AD
situated at month of River Liffey
Viking could trade and explore inland
The growth of Dublin - The Anglo-Normans
Occupied Dublin in 1171
Built stone walls around city
Medieval city - narrow streets, poor sanitation, poor living conditions, plagues
Dublin Castle built by Normans
The growth of Dublin - Georgian Dublin
British rule - 16th to 18th centuries
Extended coty, new wide streets added in grid patter
Famous buildings - GPO, Custom House, Trinity College
Wealthy loved in new squares - St Stephen's Green
The growth of Dublin - 19th century Dublin
Act of Union 1801 - Parliament moved to London
Wealthy residents of Georgian houses left Dublin
Became distribution centre for goods via canal and rail
Docklands became important source of employment
Tenements - overcrowding, poverty, disease
The growth of Dublin - 20th century Dublin
Grew rapidly in 20th century
Inner-city slums celared, people moved to suburbs
Newer suburbs then developed, eg. Lucan, Tagllaght
Inner-city renewed - residential, commercial, financial
The growth of Dublin - 21st century Dublin
Growth of suburbs and further expansion of city
Urban sprawl has continued
Parts have undergone urban renewal
Satellite towns have become part of city. For example, Tallaght
Urbanisation is when there is a huge growth in the size and number f gowns and cities.
It is continuing throughout the world. New cities are growing all the time as more and more people leave their rural lives behind and move into cities in search of work.
In essence, a rural to urban shift is taking place.
functional zones in cities
Most cities have a number of different zones.
Each zone has a different function or use.
The Central Business District (CBD)
The centre of every city has a CBD
This is where the big banks, office buildings, and department stores are.
These buildings are usually multi-storied buildings.
Eg. Dublin 2
Smaller Shopping Areas
Around the outskirts of the city there will be small little village centres where people can do their day-to-day shopping.
These small areas allow people to access all of the services they need without having to go into the city centre.
In most suburbs of Dublin city there are shopping centres.
Blanchardstown Shopping Centre - Blanchardstown
Th Square - Tallagth
Dundrum Shopping Centre - Dundrum
Since the Industrial Rrevolution, cities have been important industrial areas. Many goods are manufactured in the factories of these cities.
Eg. Detroit, Michigan is nicknamed Motor City because it is where many American car companies built their cars
Port cities often have industries such as oil refining (Rotterdam) or chemical factories (Cork)
There are many industrial estates in the suburbs around the cities. Footloose industries are attracted to these areas.
Space for recreation/leisure
All cities need space for children to play and for people to relax and enjoy the outdoors.
Dublin has parks like the Phoenix Park and St Stephen's Green. There are also many parks in the suburban areas surrounding Dublin.
Functional zones of London
City of London - principal financial district of UK, also known as the Square Mile
West End - main shopping and entertainment district, for example, Oxford Street
West London - huge residential area, exclusive neighbourhoods, such as Notting Hill
West End - old industrial area
Park Royal - main industrial area, employs 40,000
Eight Royal Parks in centre, for example, Hyde Park
Olympic Park - redeveloped industrial area
The Westfield - 1.9 million squared feet of shopping centre
Opened in 2011, over 300 shops
Values in land use in cities
Land gets less valuable as you move out from CBD
Buildings get smaller as you move out from CBD
Land use in cities
In city centre, most buildings are multi-storey buildings
Rent is high for retailers in city centre
In suburbs, there is much more land available. Most buildings are one or two storeys high
Residential housing in urban areas
Apartments and flats
Apartments and flats
Found close to city centre
Built to maximise space
Close go city centre and in housing estates
No front garden, door opens onto street
City centre - oldest residential housing
Outskirts of town or in housing estates
Pairs of houses with a shared wall
Garden or driveway around them
In housing estates and outskirts of town
Free-standing on their own site
People who travel to work are called commuters
Commuting to work in cities
People who travel to work are called commuters.
Many of these people live in the suburbs of the city or live in counties surrounding Dublin.
percentages of how people commute to work
Cars/trucks/vans - 46%
Buses - 29%
Train - 12%
Walking - 9%
Bikes - 3%
Motorbikes - 1%
Solutions to traffic congestion
Best way to solve problem is by encouraging people to use public transport.
Building more roads does not solve the problem.
Public transport methods
Can carry up to 80 people
If more used buses, would take many cars off roads each day
Can get to city centre much quicker than cars bc can use Quality Bus Corridors (QBCs)
Big increase in number OF QBCs in Dublin in recent years
FART is example of light rail system
Very successful network. Many travel to work using DART
DART line runs through many areas along coastline of Dublin between Howth and Bray
This type of public transport is very popular in many European cities
Fast and efficient method of transport
Dublin's Luas - extremely popular with commuters
Bike to work and dublinbikes rental schemes have encouraged people to cycle to and from work
Safer and makes it easier to cycle in city centre
Zones of decline
Zones of decline
Many derelict sites
Abandoned + fallen in to disrepair
Some have been redeveloped
Empty buildings - squatters, drug addicts
Could become areas of urban decline
Money has been spent in redeveloping these
Rapid spread of housing from cities outwards
Spread into countryside
Valuable farmland and greenbelts taken over by roads and houses
Smaller towns and villages absorbed
Puts pressure on services such as water supply and sewage
In the past, jobs in city centre.
Factories moved to suburbs
Jobs in CBD required skilled personnel
Unskilled people - unemployment
Big problem in inner-city areas
Drugs, unemployment, lack of services
Since 1960s, many have moved out of city to suburbs
Has left some disconnect from family in city centre
Results in them feeling isolated
Ways to improve urban areas
Inner-city renewal + redevelopment
Planning of new towns
Means knocking down old house/flats + building new places for people to live
Means knocking down old houses/flats and building shops, offices, restaurants or car park ie. replacing them with a new funcfion, eg. offices in place of houses
Urban renewal case study
Fatima mansion in Dolphin Barn, Dublin
Challenges faced by Fatima mansion
-Lone parents headed 49% of households. Lone parents at greater risk of poverty than two-parent families
-Children under 15 made up 38% of population, more than double national average
-Community educationally disadvantaged. 61% of adults had no formal educational qualifications
-Unemployment 39% in 2005 - nearly 8 times national average for that year
-Community had high levels of ill health, high school drop-out rates + serious drugs problem
Renewal of the Fatima Mansions of the area
2005 - demolition and rebuilding began. Fatima mansions have been replaced with socially mixed homes. By 2008, 600 households were living in newly built area.
Social renewal in Fatima Mansions
Quality of peoples lives improved
Social renewal of Fatima Mansions eight-part programme
1. Establishment of safe and sustainable community through dialogue between gardaí and community
2. Raising education levels in community with appointment of education officer for both adults + young people
3.Improving people's health and wellbeing by raising awareness of health issues
4. Providing training for employment through local training scheme
5. Emphasis on arts and culture
6. The development of sport and recreational facilities to encourage people of all ages to participate in sport + exercise
7. Community facilities in neighbourhood
8. Raising environmental awareness by helping community recycle and take pride in clean neighbourhood
The planning of new towns
Tallaght Town + Adamstown
Tallaght chosen as location for new town in 1960s
Has developed into important rsidential, commercial, industrial area.
Now has many facilities including hospital, shopping centre, the county library, Tallaght IT and many industrial estates
Connected to city centre by Luas
Tallaght is continuously growing and will soon become a city on its own