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Flashcards in Settlements Deck (27):
1

Mesolithic

First people to settle in Ireland
Arrived in 7000BC
Ate fish, deer, duck, wild pig, hazel nuts
Hunter gatherers
Mount Sandel

2

Neolithic

Start 5000BC - 2000BC
first farmers
Houses made from wattle and daub
Lough Gur

3

Settlements in Ireland

Mesolithic
Neolithic
Bronze age
Iron Age/Celts
Early Christian Ireland
Vikings
Normans

4

Iron Age/Celts

Arrived 800BC
Warlike people
Began using iron
Defensive settlements
Built crannógs, ringforts, hill forts on elevated sites.
Dún/Inis/Rath suggested Celtic settlements

5

Early Christian Ireland

400AD - 1000AD
Monasteries found (Glendalough, Clonmacnoise)
Grew into settlements (Ennis)
Place names begin with Mainstir

6

Vikings

8th century
Settled in Dublin, Waterford, Cork
Attacked monasteries
Established along the coast, bays, harbours

7

primate city

A city at least twice as big as the next city in the same state. Eg. Paris and Copenhagen are European examples

8

Functions of Dublin

Seat of the government - The Dáil, Seanead, most civil state cervices in Dublin

Ireland's chief port - Has largest airport in state, with thousands of employees

Centre of Ireland's road and rail network - transport system radiates outwards to provinces from Dublin

Ireland's most important financial centre - large companies (bambks, insurance companies) have their headquarters there

Most important centre for shopping, tourism, education and health

9

factors influencing the distribution of towns and cities

altitude
drainage patterns
land quality

10

factors influencing the distribution of towns and cities

Altitude

Nucleated settlements avoid high altitudes

Mountains + hills exposed to high winds + attract relief rain
Temperatures lower than at sea level

Nucleated settlements confined to coast + valleys that cut through mountains

11

factors influencing the distribution of towns and cities

Drainage patterns

River valleys attracted settlement since ancient times

River valleys contain fertile land that attracted farming settlements +
provided food for towns located by river

Towns located at bridging points - become a route focus, eg. Athlone, Ballina

Towns + cities locate at estuaries + mouths of rivers
-land is lower
-close to ports - trade, transport
-Dublin, Galway

12

factors influencing the distribution of towns and cities

Land quality

Poor land that may be marshy, infertile or subject to flooding repels settlement

Fertile land attracts settlement

Towns located in centre of rich agricultural land thrived - became market centres for produce from surrounding area

Provided services for local population

Some settlements located on coast. (May be fishing ports, eg. Killybegs, Co. Donegal or coastal resorts, eg. Tramore, Co. Waterford)

Marshy land repels settlement
Nucleated settlement developed on boundaries of peatlands.

13

Polders

Reclaimed land which is used for agricultural and settlement purposes

14

Multifunctional town

A town with many functions (uses)

15

Functions of a town

R religious/residential
I industrial
C commerce
E educational
P port
O open spaces/recreational
T tourism
S services

16

polders in the netherlands

in hardback

17

town that changes function over time

national - limerick city

international - basel, switzerland

18

different functions of limerick city

in hardback

19

different functions of basel, switzerland

in hardback

20

changing functions: clare castle

in hardback

21

communication links

the movement of people and goods between settlements lead to the communication links.

22

types of communication links

airports

railroads

roads
-motorways

ports

telecommunications
-phone lines
-broadband
-TV
-radio

23

transport 21 plan

-€34 billion invested
-road, rail, and airports
- reduced travel time between cities
-towns developed

24

Ireland's transport networks

in hardback tbh

25

Effects of road development on settlement: satellite towns

Ease at which people can travel leads to satellite towns

Can live further away and commute to work

Sattelite/Dormitory towns have grown in size

26

Effects of road development on settlement: Bridging points

Roads cross bridges over rivers at narrowest point

Settlement develops

Becomes market place and route focus

Leads to further development

27

Communication links case study - French rail network + Metro system

In hardback