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Flashcards in Primary economic activities Deck (32):
1

Natural resources

Things provided by nature which are useful to people

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Types of natural resource

Renewable
Non-renewable

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Renewable resources

Can be used over and over again. With careful management, will not run out.

eg. cut down trees for wood, plant new trees

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Non-renewable resources

Can only be used once.
Each time they are used, less is left for future.
Will eventually run out

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Local water supply: Limerick City

Water in taps comes from River Shannon. Treated so it is safe to drink.

Filtering
Goes through filters to take out bacteria & viruses.
Use horizontal flow settling tank & rapid gravity filters.

Adding Chemicals
Chemicals added to make water better. Chlorine + fluoride.
Coagulants added to make water clear.

Storage
Pumped into storage resevoirs. Flows through mains to Limerick City into distribution pipes to homes, businesses, other users.

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Central Valley project in California

Reasons
How it was completed
Advantages
Disadvantages

7

Reasons for Central Valley Project

Summer drought is a feature of Central Valley bc Mediterranean climate

North has Sacramento River w/ large supply of water from Rocky mountains. Most good farm land in south,

Solution = carry waters from north to south.

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how central valley project was completed

Dams built on river, reservoirs created.

canals & aqua ducts built to transfer water from north to south

water stored in reservoirs of north for summer drought in south

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advantages of central valley project

dry land can be irrigated

HEP is produced at dams to pump water to central valley

wide range of food can be grown in area to feed cities of San Francisco & LA

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Disadvantages of central valley project

Reservoirs flooded land. People had to leave their homes.

Water loss through evaporation from canal & reservoirs is high. Water remaining is high in salt contetn, not suitable for farm land.

Scheme was expensive to construct so water charges & crop prices are high

11

positive effects of oil exploration in Irish waters

employment would increase as oil workers got jobs on rigs. Service industries would develop to supply rigs.

Irish gov would get more tax revenue from workers + oil companies

Transport & housing would improve towns near oil resources.

12

Negative effects of oil exploration in Irish Waters

Pollution from oil spillages would increase

Wild life, marine life, beaches would suffer

Areas of natural beauty would suffer from heavy engineering side effects of oil exploration.

13

why has fishing become an important industry in Ireland?

Waters rich in plankton
Fish found in these waters are high quality - high prices

Fish found in large single species schools, easier to get a good catch

Decline in fish stock elsewhere brought foreign trawlers

Irish coastal waters are free from serious pollution

14

Why overfishing occurred in the Celtic sea

Herron use shallow sheltered warm water near coast to spawn. Easy to fish these areas.

Herron predictable in movement, coming between October & January each year.

Come in large schools - attractive catch

Before spawning, Herron more suitable for processing, fetch high prices

15

Conservative measures for fishing

EU banned Herron fishing in 1977
Allowed fishing to resume but set quotas to limit amount each member state may catch in a year.

Regular surveys monitor size of fish stock

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Sustainable exploitation of fish

Conservation zones around countries

Reduce number of fishing boats

Yearly quotas for fish cathces

Banned fishing of endangered species

Fishing season shorter for some types of fish

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Examples of Ireland's fishing ports

Skerries
Hiwth
Dingle
Galway

18

conservation of peat bogs

Some bogs should be preserved in natural state for future generatns

Bord na Móna now returning some bogs to wetlands & preserving diff. bogs

bogs exploited may become wind farms in future

19

How Bord na Mona exploited bogs

Large machines drain, level, strip vegetation

Machine boggers cut turf

Milling machines scraped peat dust from surface of bog to make milled peat.

Private railway laid across bogs to solve transport problems by wet bogd

20

Advantages to Irish economy from exploitation of peat

Employment (2000+ people in areas where job creation is difficult

Reduced coal & oil imports, saving economy money

Exported moss peat to other countries, earn money for economy

Much of bogs when finished or cut away can be turned into farmland

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Inputs

Things needed of be put into farm, eg. cattle & machinery

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Processes

Tasks or jobs done by farmer throughout year on farm, eg. milking, ploughing

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Outputs

Produce of farm, what farmer sells, eg. milk, veg, livestock

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Types of farms

Dairy farming - milk, butter, cheese

Cereal farming - maize, wheat, barley

Market gardening - veg., flowers, fruits

Pastoral farming - cows, calves

Mixed farming - calves, milk, veg.

25

Farming's impact on the environment

Insect sprays on crops are harmful, can end up in our food

Fertilisers used on land to increase fertility can run off into streams & rivers, pollute water supply

Illegal dumping of sillage, slurry, milk leads to over-pollution of rivers - killing of fish.

26

A mixed farm in co. meath - inputs

Labour - farmer & family work on farm with help from farm labourers & vet.

Stock a seeds, animals, fertilisers.

Farm buildings - milking parlour, grain silos, slurry tank, sheds, barn

Machinery - tractor, milking machine, fertiliser spreader

Capital - money from sale + single farm payment, grants & subsidies from EU & gov.

27

Processes of a mixed farm in co. meath

Divided into three sections:

Dairy farming - milking cows, breeding

Pastoral farming - feeding & caring for animals

Arable farming - ploughing, sowing seeds, harvesting, storing

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Outputs of a mixed farm in Co. Meath

Dairy farming - calves, milk, manure for fertiliser

Pastoral farming - beef & manure for fertiliser

Arable farming - crips, veg, straw

29

How we take resources from the land and sea

Farming
Fishing
Forestry
Mining
Quarrying

30

Saudi Arabia - Oil Producing country

In Persian Gulf
Produces more oil than any other country
One of the wealthiest

31

Saudi arabia - Adv of oil production

Huge income for gov.

Improve services + living standards

Employment

32

Saudi Arabia - disadv. to oil production

overspent on weapons

despite changes - little improvements on women's rights