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Population graph - Population in recent centuries

-Population reached 7 billion in 2015

-Increase of 80mil per year or roughly 1.5mil per week

-Population did not increase at this rate in earlier centuries

-World's population fluctuated (going up and down)

-Graph indicates population fluctuates

-Since 1900s, experienced population explosion
-More babies surviving to become adults and have children of their own

-Population increase is more focused in developing countries. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are seeing population increase

-Developed world - experiencing population decrease


What is the demographic transition model?

The demographic transition model (or population cycle) shows population change over time. It studies how birth rate and death rate affect the total population of a country


Stage 1 of the demographic transition model

Eg. Isolated tribal troups

-Birth & death rate fluctuating
-Population does not grow because of high death rates cancelling out high bight rates
-Causes of death rate are famine, disease, natural disasters


Stage 2 of the demographic transition model

Eg. Mali

-Countries have started to develop their economies
-Governments providing clean water + health services
-Birth rate is high while death rate declines
-Population grows


Stage 3 of the demographic transition model

Eg. Brazil

-Advanced economic development
-People more educated
-Parents plan family size and have fewer children
-Less population growth


Stage 4 of demographic transition model

Eg. Ireland

-Countries are wealthy
-Parents plan families
-Low birth and death rate
-Most survive to old age
-Low population growth


Stage 5 of demographic transition model

Eg. Germany

-Death rate greater than birth rate
-Most of population is elderly and mothers have few children
-Population decline


Causes of population change

Birth rate
Number of babies born per 1000 people in a year

Death rate
Number of deaths per 1000 people in a year

The movement of people in and out of an area


Calculating natural increase/decrease

Births per 1000 - Deaths per 1000 = ______ / 100 = __ %


Eg. natural increase

Eg. Ireland

Birth rate: 17 per 1000
Death rate: 6 per 1000

17 - 6 = 11
11/100 = 1.1%


Natural decrease example

Eg. Japan

Birth rate 8 per 1000, death rate 10 per 1000

8 - 10 = -2
-2/100 = 0.2%


Factors influencing the rate of population

Food supply
Technology development
The status of women


Factors influencing the rate of population: Food supply

Growing populations need expanding food supplies.

The agricultural revolution made food more available.

Machinery, crop rotation, and selective breeding increased food supply. Fertilisation enable crops to be grown which reduced the chance of famine.


Factors influencing the rate of population: War

Initially, war increases the death rate.

Young people leave for war which reduces the birthrate.

War strains food supplies, farming, healthcare and water supplies.

After war young people return and there may be a baby boom which happened in Germany after WW II


Factors influencing the rate of population: Technology development

Technological development increases food supply as a result of machinery.

This makes farming more productive.

Irrigation schemes allow crops to be grown in times of frought.

New drugs increase population health.


Factors influencing the rate of population: Health

Healthcare systems decrease the death rate.

Vaccines and antibiotics provide immunity to diseases.

Certain diseases are eradicated in developed countries whereas they may be widespread in developing countries.

Access to clean water, sanitation and good living conditions reduce spread of diseases. Eg. Ireland


Factors influencing the rate of population: Education

Education reduces the birth and death rate.

The more educated the population, the smaller the families and lower the population growth.

When parents see that their children are surviving to adulthood, they have fewer children.

Birth rates are low in developed countries because people are more educated and raising a large family is more expensive.


Factors influencing the rate of population: The status of women

Back then women were confined to roles of mothers and full-time homemakers

Today women have more options, Many pursue a career and plan their families.

Feminist movement in 1960s along with high levels of female education brought this change.

In developing countries, mothers have more traditional roles. They have lower statues and do not have access to family planning.


What are population pyramids

Tell us about birth rates, death rates, life expectancy and dependancy.


What is population structure?

Means the 'make up' or composition of a population.

Looking at the population structure of a place shows how the population is divided up between males and females of different age groups.


Population pyramids base and top

Broader base = higher birth rate

Narrower the top = higher death rate


What does a population pyramid tell us?

How many dependants there are.

Dependants rely on economically active people. (People who can work)


Two groups of dependants

young dependants (below 15)

elderly dependants (over 65)


What does being dependent mean?

Being dependent means you rely on people.


Ireland population pyramid

Birth rate:
-People are planning families and have smaller families
-Women more career focused

Death rate:
-Access to good health services (anti-biotics)
-High living standard
-Good hygiene + sanitation

Life expectancy:
-High life expectancy
-Good care of the elderly
-Good health services

Future population:
-Increase in death rate
-Increase in elderly dependancy which increases cost of pensions


Brazil population pyramid

Birth rate:
-Very high
-Slight decrease due to some education
-Not much family planning

Death rate:
-Poor health services
-Lack of clean drinking water
-Poor diet

Life expectancy:
-Women live longer, men work in harsher conditions
-Health services not available
-People more prone to disease

Future population:
-In Brazil, the role of women may change from mother to a woman who has a career (education)


Germany population pyramid

Birth rate:
-Role of women in German society has changed. Many choose to have a career instead of having children
-Highly educated + family planning

Death rate:
-Excellent health services (hospitals, new drugs, doctors)
-High living standards (good sanitation)

Life expectancy:
-Good care of the elderly (nursing homes)
-Access to health care.
-High living standards

Future population:
-Population will decrease as result if an in crease in death rate (natural decrease)
-Too many elderly dependents.


Population distribution

Means the pattern of where people live. World population distribution is uneven.

-Places are sparsely populated or densely populated.

Sparsely populated --> difficult to live in/hostile environments (Antarctica)

Densely populated --> habitable places


Population density

A measurement of the number of people in an area.

Population density = number of people / area

-Population density is usually shown as the number of people per square kilmoetres.


Uneven distributions of the world

Population of world is unevenly distributed

World's 7 billion people are not evenly distributed around the planet
-concentrated in areas where the climate is suitable and the land habitable

Densely populated places such as Europe and East/South Asia are low-lying and have climates suited to human beings