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Define 'Secondary Economic Activities'

The changing of a raw material into a finished product.


Examples of secondary economic activities.



What is a factory?

A factory may be described as a system of inputs, processes and outputs.


Examples of inputs, processes and outputs.

Wood, cutting, table.

wool, sewing, clothing.

wheat, baking, loaf.

milk, pasteurising, milk.

lead, shaping, pencil.


Factors that affect the location of factories.

government policy,
EU policy,
raw materials/resource materials.


Factors affecting factory location:

Cheap labour found in Asia,
if you need a highly skilled workforce, you may locate near universities/colleges, etc.


Factors affecting factory location:

Some countries may offer grants to help start up your factory eg IDA in Ireland (Industrial Developmental Agency)


Factors affecting factory location:

A lot of factories locate in Industrial estates to get access to water/electricity and broadband, etc.


Factors affecting factory location:a

Factories tend to locate in areas where there are good road networks, ports and airport.


Factors affecting factory location:
Government tax

Some governments will offer low corporation tax rates to encourage factories to locate there. Eg in Ireland the rate of Corporation tax is 12.5%


Factors affecting factory location:
EU policy.

If a factory locates within the EU, they can have free trade with other member states. Also 18 of the 28 members use the same currency.


Factors affecting factory location:

Some products gain volume after they have been processed, eg baking. For that r ason, bakeries choose a market location, this they are located in or beside cities. In this way, the transport cost of bread to local shops and supermarkets is kept low.


Factors affecting factory location:
Raw materials/resource materials.

Factories locate near where they can get the resource material that they need. Eg dairy processing factories locate near dairy farms.


Case study: Intel

-Light industry: uses moderate amounts of raw materials.

-Location: Leixlip, Co. Kildare

-Makes microchips for computers.

-Located there because of:
Tax incentives and grants offered by the government.

By having a factory in Ireland, they have free trade with other EU countries.

Ireland is an english-speaking country.

Links with NUI Maynooth (70% of workers have a 3rd level qualification.)

Good transport links as factory is located near m4/m50/m1 airport.

Earthquake-free zone.


Case Study: Rusal Aughinish

-Heavy industry: uses heavy machinery and huge plants.

-Located in Aughinish Island, 28km downstream from Limerick City on the Shannon Estuary.

-Alumina refinery that extracts alumina from the resource material bauxite.

-Located because:
Bauxite is a bulky material that comes mainly from West Africa by ship, and the product (alumina) is re-exported. Therefore, it is on a coastal location.

Good transport as the Shannon Estuary is deep enough to take very large ships known as bulk carriers

The island is large enough to store the waste material. (an inert mud)

Many of it's workers live in nearby towns such as Foynes, Askeaton and Newcastle West.

They are provided services such as water, telecommunications and electricity.


What is a footloose industry?

A footloose industry is a factory that is not tied to any one location. Most modern light industries can be described a footloose because of:
industrial estates.


British Iron and Steel industry.

1700s -
Iron + steel industries located near forests
Cut down trees and burned to make charcoal.
Charcoal was used to melt iron + steel.

1800s -
Industrial revolution increased demand for iron + steel.
New resource (coal) discovered.
Coal was used to melt iron + steel because it burned at high temperatures.

1960s -
Coal deposits were becoming exhausted.
Little coal available.

1980s -
Closure of coal mines by Margaret Thatcher.
Iron + steel industries moved to coastal areas to import and export iron + steel products because Asian countries were selling it cheaper.


What is industrial inertia?

Industrial inertia was when a factory remains in a location even though the original reason for locating there no longer exists.
Eg iron + steel factory still located in sheffield.


What is a niche product?

Goods manufactured for a specific purpose. Eg surgical equipment for hospitals.

Iron + steel industries have modernised and upskilled their workers to make niche products.


Changes in the role of women.

There are many factors affecting the changes in the role of wonen. These include:

-Free secondary education was introduced in 1967. This increased education levels for girls and boys.
Nowadays many women enter third-level education.

-The increase of the cost of homes meant that both partners had to work to pay the mortgage.

-The Women's Liberation Movement in the 1970s led to many changes in the status of women.

-Gender equality laws ensured women had equal pay and equal status in jobs.


Reasons why clothes are being made in newly industrialised countries:

Industrialised regions.

Although Western Europe, the USA and Japan still dominate world manufacturing, other regions are catching up. This is because multinationals are transferring their factories to Asia and Latin America, where their labour costs are cheaper.


Reasons why clothes are being made in newly industrialised countries:

Newly Industrialised Countries.

Newly Industrialised Countries are attractive to multinationals because of their low labour costs. These include Taiwan, South Korea, China.
These countries have only started to rise in manufacturing.


Reasons why clothes are being made in newly industrialised countries:

Labour Costs

South-East Asian countries have low labour costs, which attract multinationals. Eg. Taiwan.


Industrially Emergent Regions.

These regions have little or no modern manufacturing. Eg. Most of Africa.
(This is because of poor services + badly developed transport systems.)


Acid Rain

-Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide mixes with the atmosphere.

-Pollution from cars, factories, and burning fossil fuels cause these gases to be released into the atmosphere.

-Acid rain has a ph level of 4.3


Damaging effects of acid rain.

Acid rain washes nutrients out of the soil.

Acid rain speeds up the rate of it dissolving.

-Fish life:
Acid rain reduces the ph level of the water and destroys fish life.

-Ancient Artifacts:
They are being dissolved by the acids in the rain.


Curbing pollution.

-Use electric cars, public transport, or use cars less.

-Using renewable energy sources. (Eg solar in Spain, wind, hydro-electricity)

-Reduce personal use of electricity.

-Reduce the use of fossil fuels in factories.


Incineration: pros.

-Reduces the amount of waste going to landfill.

-Incinerator can heat homes.

-EPA - If managed, it will not release harmful gases.


Incineration: cons.

-Release greenhouse gases.

-Traffic congestion from lorries going in and out of incinerators.

-Reduce, reuse, recycle should be enough.


What did trade unions do?

-Shorter working hours.

-Early retirement.

-Protect worker's rights.

-Paid sick/maternity.

-Holiday 22 days a year.


Regions where tourist services + facilities tend to be located in

Areas of natural beauty eg. The Burren

Regions offering recreational + sporting facilities eg. Croke Park in Dublin

Beaches + coastlines eg. Portmarnock beach in Dublin or Venice Beach in California

Cities eg. Paris and Rome


Areas of Natural Beauty

Ice Age carved out valleys across Ireland rg. Glendalough Co. Wicklow

Areas of seclusion for "peace and tranquility" eg. Glen of Aherlow


Beaches and coastlines

Coastal erosion + deposition created rugged coastline with many spectacular features

Cliffs of Moher - 750,000 people per year visit them

Peninsulas of West Cork + Kerry

Wedg, east, south coasts more noted for beaches rg. Tramore


Regions offering recreational and sporting facilities

Ireland has ever increasing number of golf courses and links

Angling - very popular holiday acitivity

International sporting fixtures draw many tourists to the country such as Croke Park, Aviva Stadium

Waterways such as Shannon - used by people for water-based activities eg. water skiing



Dublin is country's most visited city. Dublin airport had best flight connections with UK and other EU countries

Dublin has many attractions - museums + galleries

Cork - excellent centre for castles (Blarney), museums. Kinsale - famous for sea foods restaurants


tourism in Spain

Temps high during June, July, August (peak season) - 25-30C average each day

Low levels of rainfall during these months

Long hours of sunshine each day


Positives of mass tourism

Tourists buy goods which raises money for governments eg. VAT

Locals get jobs (employment) and get pay income tax

20% of gov's income is raised from tourism

Gov. spends money to develop roads/railways, airports, broadband, etc (infrasturcture)


Negatives of mass tourism

Prices increase for locals

Water pollution - sewage dumped into sea.
Noise pollution - nightclubs/pubs. Air pollution - from transport eg. cars, airplanes. Visual/aesthetic pollution - eg. lots of hotels on a beach

Crime - fights, pick-pocketing

Loss of cultural identity as result of more speaking English (Irish + Eng. pubs) and people moving from UK to Spain