Elderly Pathologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Elderly Pathologies Deck (33):
1

Complicating factors of elderly assessment

variability, response to illness, presence of multiple pathologies, altered illness/injury presentations, communicative problems, polypharmacy

2

Misleading findings found in an elderly pt physical exam

inelastic skin mimics decreased turgor
mouth breathing mimics dehydration
pedal oedema from inactivity
non-pathological crepitus or rales in lung bases
peripheral pulses difficult to feel

3

Pneumonia in the elderly

assoc with presence of other chronic diseases
signs and symptoms: cough, fever, SOB, tachycardia, tachypnoea

4

Signs and symptoms of COPD in elderly pt

extreme anxiety, cyanosis, wheezing, abnormal or diminished breath sounds, dyrhythmias, reduced O2 levels

5

Pulmonary Embolism in elderly pt

sudden dyspnoea and reduced motility and no other idetntified cause
travel through femoral veins, IVC, heart to lungs

6

Signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism

unexplained tachycardia
left ventricular failure and sudden tachypnoea
calf discomfort without tenderness

7

Congestive Heart Failure in elderly pt

ventricular output cannot meet demand

8

Causes of congestive heart failure

ischaemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, dysrthythmias, thyroid disease

9

signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure

nocturia, paroxysmal nocturnal confusion, large blisters on legs, dyspnoea, fatigue, orthopnoea, dry hacking cough progressing to productive cough with frothy sputum, oedema to legs and feet

10

Acute MI in elderly pts

most common is silent MI

11

signs and symptoms of MI

weakness/fatigue, dyspnoea, acute abdo, nausea, syncope, incontinence, confusion

12

Dysrhythmias

any condition that reduces blood flow to the heart can cause dysrhythmias

13

Aortic Dissection/aneurysm in elderly pts
-thoracic and abdo

thoracic: tearing chest pain, often assoc with neuro signs and symptoms, asymmetry of upper extremity pulses
Abdo: tearing abdo pain, pulsating mass, unexplained lower back pain, lower extremity weakness numbness pallor and coolness

14

Signs and symptoms of Stroke

dizziness, behaviour change, headache, ataxia, diplopia (double vision), language disturbance, numbness, vertigo, visual disturbance

15

causes of GI haemorrhage in elderly pts

peptic ulcer, gastritis, eosophageal varices, NSAID abuse, tumours, divertivulosis

16

Signs and symptoms of GI haemorrhage in elderly pts

coffee ground emesis, dark or bloody stool, orthostatic hypotension, confusion, increased angina symptoms, weakness, dyspnoea

17

Causes of bowel obstruction

tumours, surgery, meds, vertebral fractures

18

signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction

diffuse pain, distension, nausea and vomiting, reduced bowel sounds, fever, weakness, shock

19

Ptioritis in elderly pts

itching, may indicate underlying liver or kidney disease

20

Herpes Zoster in elderly pts

from chicken pox virus
painful skin rash with blisters, often in a strip

21

Debcuitus Ulcers in elderly pts

bed sores
frequently change position and clean, provide padding

22

Causes of depression in aging pts

growing older, health problems, loneliness and isolation, reduced sense of purpose, fears of dying, recent bereavment

23

Gerontology

scientific study of effects of aging and age related diseases of the aged

24

Geriatrics

study and treatment of diseases of aged

25

Chronological Age

number of years elapsed since a person's birth
only a rough index of physiological or biological development

26

Biological Age

estimate of a person's position with respect to his/her potential lifespan
measure of vitality and neurobiological health
may differ in relation to chronological age

27

Psychological Age

an individual's adaptive capabilities
adapt by drawing on various characteristics:
learning and memory, intelligence, emotional control and motivational strengths, coping styles

28

Social Age

refer to social roles and expectations
age graded expectations of peers and family

29

Types of actions in relation to successful aging

avoidance of disease and disability
continuation of effective physical and psychological functioning in later years
continued active social engagement

30

Negative associations with aging

economic burden on society and family
emotional burden
forgetful/senile
useless/inadequate
irrelevant/forgotten

31

Societal issues impacting on successful aging

living environments, poverty, loneliness/isolation, social support

32

Progeria

a rare genetic condition where symptoms reembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age
lifespan of approx 13 yo
lamin A gene defective

33

Werner's Disease

autosomal dominant WRN gene on chrom 8, unwinds DNA
emerges around puberty
lifespan 40-50yo