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Flashcards in Menopause and Aging Deck (40):


final cessation of menstruation
average between 45-55years


Stages of women's reproduction

Perimenopause - transition period before menopause, early 40s
Menopause - 2 months amenorrhea
Post menopause - end of peri menopause to end of life


Stage 1 - Premenopausal Phase

Ovaries gradually decrease hormone production, periods more closely or widely space or irregular


Premenopausal symptoms

fluid retention, breast tenderness, weight gain


Stage 2 - Menopausal Phase

further decrease in hormone production, ovaries cease to produce eggs, menstruation ceases
when periods cease entirely for a year


Stage 3 - Post menopausal Phase

hormonal level stabilise and menopausal signs subside, ovaries continue making small amounts of estrogen


Hormone Levels during menopause

ovaries make very little estrogen and progesterone, overall estrogen levels fall by 90%, progesterone levels also fall, increased levels of FSH and LH, testosterone decline slowly with age


Short term consequences of menopause

hot flushes, night sweats, insomnia, crawling skin, anxiety, irritbility, sleep disturbances, lessened memory and concentration, vaginal dryness, fatigue, muscle/joint pains, overall reduction in wellbeing


Long term consequences of menopause

vaginal and urinary tract aging, bone loss - osteoporosis, increased risk of heart disease, increased risk of dementia


Vitamins and Minerals that are altered

Vitamin D - essential for Ca absorption
Magnesium - helps Ca utilisation and distribution
Copper - essential for bone formation and mineralisation
Zinc - required for bone formation


Risk factors for osteoporosis

Caucasian, decreased levels of estrogen in women, decreased physical activity, decrease in Ca and Vitamin D, excessive intake of caffeine and alcohol, excess of PTH and cotisol, family history, low body weight, smoking/meds


Prevention of Osteoporosis

exercise, oestrogen - reduces bone reabsorption, calcium suppllements, stop smoking, have 15 m daylight, increase calcium intake, weiht bearing and high impact exercise


Risk factors for heart disease in women

high cholesterol, high BP, obesity, diabetes, smoking, family Hx, early menopause


Treatment options for menopause

HT, exercise, diet, natural alternative treatment options, lifestyle


Hormone Replacement Therapy

replacing the natural hormone the ovaries no longer make
oestrogen to alleviate symptoms and protect bones
progesterone to protect uterus and bone
testosterone to maintain bone, muscle, energy, libido


Benefits of HRT

reduction in unpleasant symptoms of menopause, reduction in loss of calcium from bones and therefore a reduction in osteoporosis and fractures associated, reduced risk of CVD


Vaginal health

incontinence, helps prevent vaginal aging, improve lubrication


CV health

oestrogens lower LDL, raise HDL, lower cholesterol levels
make blood vessels healthier


Bone health

osteoporosis - decrease in fractures etc
prevent bone reabsorption in menopausal women


Bowel health

colon cancer - reduction in rectal cancer in women who have used HT compared with never users


Mental health

depression - HT improves mild depressive symptoms


Exercise benefits during menopause

maintain muscle, minimise abdo fat, prevent heart disease, protect bones, reduce menopausal symptoms, reduce stress, improve sleep patterns, enhance wellbeing


Dietary benefits during menopause

change in metabolic rate, average weight gain is 2-5kg, body shape changes, behaviour change for healthy eating, increase vegetable/fruit/legumes/wholegrains, increase consumption of omega 3, include lean meat/poultry, reduced consumption of simple CHO, water best fluid


Male changes similar to females

changes in bone density, lipoproteins, increased body fat, altered body composition, alteration in endocrine status, sexual dysfunction, psychological factors, benign prostatic hyperplasia, arteriosclerosis, altered glucose sensitivity, changes in muscle strength


Hormonal changes in men

reduced serum total testosterone level, reduced bioavailability of testosterone, reduced GH, thryroid hormones, DHEA, steroid hormone, adrenal


Age related changes in the male repro system

testes: thickening of the basement membrane of seminferous tubules, peritubular fibrosis, germ cell arrest
epididymus: regression of secretory epithelium
drop in testosterone and other hormones plus psychosocial factors


Age related changes to the body

total body water decreases, generalised body tissue fibrosis, progressive loss of homeostatic systems, height, weight, skin, musculoskeletal, resp system, cardiovascular system, renal system, nervous system


Height changes

decrease of 5 to 7 cm
kyphosis (spinal curvature)
spinal disc narrowing
knee/joint flexion
joint narrowing space


Weight changes

total body mass decreases - subcutaneous fat deposits decrease, fat deposits in organs increase


skin changes

loss of elasticity, collagen leads to dermal thinning, sweat glands decrease, sweating decreases


Musculoskeletal changes

decreased muscle mass relative to body weight, cartilage loses ability to adapt to repetitive stress, bone demineralisation and increased bone reabsorption


Respiratory changes

lung and chest wall compliance decreases, ribs and chest wall, resp muscles weaken, diameter of alveoli increases, cilia loss, residual volume increases and vital capacity decreases


Cardiovascular changes

increased internal thickening of arteries, increased cholesterol deposits, stroke volume declines, speed/force of myocardial contraction decreases, HR decline, PVR increases with age, cardicac conducting system deteriorates, increased work to heart


Renal system changes

decreased GFR


Genitourinary system changes

benign prostate growth, loss of bladder control, increase of UTIs, urinary retention, tumours, incontinence


Nervous system changes

brain cell loss, decreases in most neurotransmitters, decreased nerve conduction in peripheral nervous system


GI system changes

decreased HCI production, delay intestinal motility, decreased saliva flow, fewer taste buds, gum atrophy, decreased liver function


Vision changes

cataracts and stuff


Eriksons theory

describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan


Factors linked to successful psychosocial aging

life purpose, social support, marriage, religion, education, gardening