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Flashcards in Menopause and Aging Deck (40):
1

Menopause

final cessation of menstruation
average between 45-55years

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Stages of women's reproduction

Perimenopause - transition period before menopause, early 40s
Menopause - 2 months amenorrhea
Post menopause - end of peri menopause to end of life

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Stage 1 - Premenopausal Phase

Ovaries gradually decrease hormone production, periods more closely or widely space or irregular

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Premenopausal symptoms

fluid retention, breast tenderness, weight gain

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Stage 2 - Menopausal Phase

further decrease in hormone production, ovaries cease to produce eggs, menstruation ceases
when periods cease entirely for a year

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Stage 3 - Post menopausal Phase

hormonal level stabilise and menopausal signs subside, ovaries continue making small amounts of estrogen

7

Hormone Levels during menopause

ovaries make very little estrogen and progesterone, overall estrogen levels fall by 90%, progesterone levels also fall, increased levels of FSH and LH, testosterone decline slowly with age

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Short term consequences of menopause

hot flushes, night sweats, insomnia, crawling skin, anxiety, irritbility, sleep disturbances, lessened memory and concentration, vaginal dryness, fatigue, muscle/joint pains, overall reduction in wellbeing

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Long term consequences of menopause

vaginal and urinary tract aging, bone loss - osteoporosis, increased risk of heart disease, increased risk of dementia

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Vitamins and Minerals that are altered

Vitamin D - essential for Ca absorption
Magnesium - helps Ca utilisation and distribution
Copper - essential for bone formation and mineralisation
Zinc - required for bone formation

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Risk factors for osteoporosis

Caucasian, decreased levels of estrogen in women, decreased physical activity, decrease in Ca and Vitamin D, excessive intake of caffeine and alcohol, excess of PTH and cotisol, family history, low body weight, smoking/meds

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Prevention of Osteoporosis

exercise, oestrogen - reduces bone reabsorption, calcium suppllements, stop smoking, have 15 m daylight, increase calcium intake, weiht bearing and high impact exercise

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Risk factors for heart disease in women

high cholesterol, high BP, obesity, diabetes, smoking, family Hx, early menopause

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Treatment options for menopause

HT, exercise, diet, natural alternative treatment options, lifestyle

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Hormone Replacement Therapy

replacing the natural hormone the ovaries no longer make
oestrogen to alleviate symptoms and protect bones
progesterone to protect uterus and bone
testosterone to maintain bone, muscle, energy, libido

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Benefits of HRT

reduction in unpleasant symptoms of menopause, reduction in loss of calcium from bones and therefore a reduction in osteoporosis and fractures associated, reduced risk of CVD

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Vaginal health

incontinence, helps prevent vaginal aging, improve lubrication

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CV health

oestrogens lower LDL, raise HDL, lower cholesterol levels
make blood vessels healthier

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Bone health

osteoporosis - decrease in fractures etc
prevent bone reabsorption in menopausal women

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Bowel health

colon cancer - reduction in rectal cancer in women who have used HT compared with never users

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Mental health

depression - HT improves mild depressive symptoms

22

Exercise benefits during menopause

maintain muscle, minimise abdo fat, prevent heart disease, protect bones, reduce menopausal symptoms, reduce stress, improve sleep patterns, enhance wellbeing

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Dietary benefits during menopause

change in metabolic rate, average weight gain is 2-5kg, body shape changes, behaviour change for healthy eating, increase vegetable/fruit/legumes/wholegrains, increase consumption of omega 3, include lean meat/poultry, reduced consumption of simple CHO, water best fluid

24

Male changes similar to females

changes in bone density, lipoproteins, increased body fat, altered body composition, alteration in endocrine status, sexual dysfunction, psychological factors, benign prostatic hyperplasia, arteriosclerosis, altered glucose sensitivity, changes in muscle strength

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Hormonal changes in men

reduced serum total testosterone level, reduced bioavailability of testosterone, reduced GH, thryroid hormones, DHEA, steroid hormone, adrenal

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Age related changes in the male repro system

testes: thickening of the basement membrane of seminferous tubules, peritubular fibrosis, germ cell arrest
epididymus: regression of secretory epithelium
drop in testosterone and other hormones plus psychosocial factors

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Age related changes to the body

total body water decreases, generalised body tissue fibrosis, progressive loss of homeostatic systems, height, weight, skin, musculoskeletal, resp system, cardiovascular system, renal system, nervous system

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Height changes

decrease of 5 to 7 cm
kyphosis (spinal curvature)
spinal disc narrowing
knee/joint flexion
joint narrowing space

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Weight changes

total body mass decreases - subcutaneous fat deposits decrease, fat deposits in organs increase

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skin changes

loss of elasticity, collagen leads to dermal thinning, sweat glands decrease, sweating decreases

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Musculoskeletal changes

decreased muscle mass relative to body weight, cartilage loses ability to adapt to repetitive stress, bone demineralisation and increased bone reabsorption

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Respiratory changes

lung and chest wall compliance decreases, ribs and chest wall, resp muscles weaken, diameter of alveoli increases, cilia loss, residual volume increases and vital capacity decreases

33

Cardiovascular changes

increased internal thickening of arteries, increased cholesterol deposits, stroke volume declines, speed/force of myocardial contraction decreases, HR decline, PVR increases with age, cardicac conducting system deteriorates, increased work to heart

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Renal system changes

decreased GFR

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Genitourinary system changes

benign prostate growth, loss of bladder control, increase of UTIs, urinary retention, tumours, incontinence

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Nervous system changes

brain cell loss, decreases in most neurotransmitters, decreased nerve conduction in peripheral nervous system

37

GI system changes

decreased HCI production, delay intestinal motility, decreased saliva flow, fewer taste buds, gum atrophy, decreased liver function

38

Vision changes

cataracts and stuff

39

Eriksons theory

describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan

40

Factors linked to successful psychosocial aging

life purpose, social support, marriage, religion, education, gardening