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Flashcards in embryo- respiratory system Deck (38):
1

during what week does the Laryngotracheal Groove & Lung Bud form?

week 4

2

Laryngotracheal groove appears in the __________

floor of caudal pharynx

3

how does the lung bud form?

Laryngotracheal Groove protrudes ventrally, forming an endodermal outgrowth from the foregut

4

the lung bud is also called the __________

respiratory diverticulum

5

what separates the lung bud (ventrally) from the foregut (dorsally)?

tracheoesophageal septum

6

The respiratory diverticulum retains a connection with the ______ at the primordial laryngeal inlet

pharynx

7

what condition can cause a risk of polyhydramnios?

Tracheoesophageal Fistula & Esophageal Atresia

8

an Esophageal atresia caused by what?

caused by posteriorly deviating septum

9

the lung bud becomes what?

Larynx, Trachea, Respiratory Tree, Lungs

10

the epithelial lining and glands of airways are from what germ layer of the lung bud?

endoderm

11

the _________ of the lung bud will give rise to smooth muscle and connective tissue of airways

splanchnic mesoderm

12

the _________ develops as the portion of the foregut immediately caudal to the pharynx

Esophagus

13

Laryngeal cartilages and musculature arise from which pharyngeal arch pairs?

pharyngeal arch pairs 4 and 6

14

Epiglottis forms from _________ of the caudal hypopharyngeal eminence

mesenchyme

15

Laryngeal mm. arising from 4th arch are innervated by which nerve?

superior laryngeal n.

16

Laryngeal mm. arising from 6th arch are innervated by the ___________ nerve

recurrent laryngeal n.

17

Lung bud divides to form two ______________

primary bronchial buds

18

the 2 primary bronchial buds will eventually become what?

primary bronchi

19

Primary Bronchial Buds Extend Into what?

Pericardioperitoneal Canals

20

the pericardioperitoneal canals eventually form what adult derivative?

pleural cavities

21

____________ gives rise to visceral pleura of the lungs

Splanchnic mesoderm

22

______________ lining thoracic body wall gives rise to the parietal pleura

Somatic mesoderm

23

Primary bronchial buds divide to form _________ buds

secondary (lobar) bronchial buds

24

Each secondary bronchus will supply what?

a lobe of the lung

25

a Tertiary bronchus and its surrounding tissue make up a ____________

bronchopulmonary segment

26

what are the 4 stages of lung development?

Pseudoglandular (6-16 weeks)

Canalicular (16-26 weeks)

Terminal sac (26 weeks to birth)

Alveolar (32 weeks to 8 years of age)

27

during the pseudoglandular phase, All major lung structures have developed except for what?

the most distal portions of respiratory tree where gas exchange occurs

28

during which stage of lung development does lung tissue becomes highly vascular?

canalicular stage

29

by the end of the canalicular stage, each terminal bronchiole has split into what?

2 respiratory bronchioles

30

during the terminal sac stage, what will develop?

More terminal sacs (primitive alveoli) develop. they are hugged by capillaries

31

the __________ barrier is formed during the terminal sac stage

blood-air barrier

32

during the terminal sac stage, Type II alveolar cells begin to do what?

produce, store, and secrete pulmonary surfactant

33

what is the job of pulmonary surfactant?

-Lines inner wall of alveolus

-reduces surface tension at the air-alveolar interface

-prevents alveolar collapse upon exhaling

34

when do Type II cells begin to produce surfactant?

weeks 20-22

35

Premature babies of 24 to 26 weeks may survive, but could suffer from _______________

Respiratory distress syndrome

36

what causes Respiratory distress syndrome?

lack of sufficient pulmonary surfactant production

37

what become fully functional during the alveoli stage?

Alveoli

38

95% of mature alveoli develop _________

postnatally