Embryo- Heart development Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy final exam > Embryo- Heart development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryo- Heart development Deck (61):
1

during Week 3, the Heart Development Begins Within what?

Cardiogenic Mesoderm

2

what is the 1st sign of heart development?

formation of a solid, horseshoe-shaped endothelial cord

3

where does the horseshoe-shaped endothelial cord form?

within the cardiogenic mesoderm

4

what is another name for the endothelial cells that make up the horseshoe cord?

Angioblastic cord
- made of splanchnic mesenchymal cells

5

during early development, what cavity is forming just dorsal to endothelial cords?

pericardial cavity

6

the lateral sides of the horseshoe-shaped endothelial tubes fold in medially & ventrally, forming what?

a single heart tube (endocardial tube)

7

the ______ ________ holds the heart to the back of the pericardial cavity

Dorsal mesocardium

8

Prior to head folding, the heart is:

-Rostral to oropharyngeal membrane
-Ventral to pericardial cavity

9

after head-folding is complete, the heart is:

-Caudal to oropharyngeal membrane
-Dorsal to pericardial cavity

10

the Dorsal Mesocardium eventually degenerates, forming what?

Transverse Pericardial Sinus

11

name the layers of the primitive heart tube, from deep to superficial

1) Endothelium
2) Cardiac jelly
3) Myocardium
4) Epicardium

12

what are the eventual derivatives of the primitive heart tube layers?

Endothelium- endocardium

Cardiac jelly- extracellular matrix

Myocardium- cardiac muscle

Epicardium- Visceral pericardium

13

all layers of the primitive heart tube are derived from ________ _________

splanchnic mesoderm

14

the cardiac jelly is produced by the ________, and will eventually degenerate

myocardium

15

name the 5 primitive chambers of the developing heart tube

A) Truncus arteriosis
B) Conus Cordis
C) Primordial Ventricle
D) Primordial Atrium
E) Sinus Venosus

16

the Bulbus Cordis contains what?

The Truncus Arteriosis and the Conus Cordis

17

what separates the Conus cords from the primordial ventricle?

Bulboventricular sulcus

18

the Atrioventricular sulcus separates which 2 structures?

Primordial ventricle & the Primordial Antrum

19

all blood first enters the ________

sinus venosus

20

The __________ separates the sinus venosus from the primordial atrium

sinoatrial canal

21

what structure connects the Primordial ventricle to the Bulbus Cordis?

Primary interventricular foramen

(found within the bulboventricular sulcus)

22

As the heart folds, its cranial end will shift:

ventrally, caudally, and to the right

23

during heart folding, the caudal end will shift:

dorsally & superiorly

24

trace the flow of blood through the primordial heart:

1) Sinus venosus
2) primordial atrium
3) atrioventricular (AV) canal
4) left ventricle (primordial ventricle)
5) interventricular (IV) foramen
6) right ventricle
7) conus cordis
8) truncus arteriosus
9) aortic sac
10) pharyngeal aa.
11) dorsal aortae

25

During partitioning of the AV canal, _________ cells near the AV junction revert to mesenchymal state

endothelial

26

what causes the endocardium to bulge out into the Atrioventricular canal?

proliferation of mesenchymal cells (from the endothelium of the AV junction)

27

what forms the atrioventricular septum?

Dorsal and ventral endocardial cushions develop and fuse together

28

what does the atrioventricular septum divide?

divides the atrioventricular canal into right and left AV canals.

29

Partitioning the primordial atrium involves forming two septa that will fuse together to form the ____________

interatrial septum

30

which atrial septum is developed first? second?

Septum primum
Septum secundum

31

the ___________ develops from the roof of the primordial atrium as a thin, moon-shaped membrane

septum primum

32

what is the foramen primum?

The opening between the inferior edge of the septum & the endocardial cushions

33

where are the foramen secundum formed?

holes form in center of septum primum through apoptosis

34

what develops as a result of holes forming/uniting in the septum primum membrane?

foramen secundum

35

the Septum secundum grows inferiorly and develops an opening, called the ____________

the foramen ovale

36

Blood entering heart now passes from R to L atrium through which structures?

foramen ovale (in the septum secundum) and foramen secundum (in the septum primum)

37

Before Birth: Blood Flows From Right to Left Atrium Through what?

the foramen ovale

38

when does the foramen ovale close off?

at birth

39

what is the postnatal remnant of the foramen ovale?

The foramen ovale closes off as a depression in the wall of the R atrium - the fossa ovalis

40

The opening between R + L ventricles is the ______________

Interventricular foramen

41

Endocardial cushions fuse with each other, forming a twisting ___________ _______

aorticopulmonary septum

42

what does the Aorticopulmonary septum divide?

divides the outflow tract into:
A) pulmonary trunk (from right ventricle)
B) aorta (from left ventricle)

43

the Aorticopulmonary septum fuses inferiorly with what?

membranous IV septum

44

what is the most common congenital heart defect? what is it a result of?

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

Failure of IV septum to completely form
-usually the membranous portion fails to form

45

what condition is caused by the Aorticopulmonary septum growing in straight instead of spiraling?

Transposition of the Great Vessels

(pulmonary trunk on left, aorta on right)

46

what problems are associated with the Tetralogy of Fallot?

(remember: INTERnational House Of PancakeS)

A) Interventricular septal defect (VSD)
B) Hypertrophy of right ventricle
C) Overriding aorta
D) Pulmonary stenosis

47

name the pairs of veins draining into the Sinus venosus

1.) Vitelline veins
2.) Umbilical veins
3.) Common cardinal veins

48

Originally, the sinus venosus opens directly into the central dorsal wall of the _________

primordial atrium

49

what is the result of the remodeling of the 3 paired veins?

the right horn of the sinus venosus becomes larger than the left.

Sinos venous shift right

50

what is the adult remnant of the right horn of the sinus venosus?

Sinus venarum
(smooth-walled portion of R. atrium)

51

what does the Left Horn of Sinus Venosus eventually form?

Coronary Sinus

52

primordial pulmonary veins eventually form what adult derivative?

Smooth Portion of Inner Wall of atrium

53

what is the final derivative of the Aortic sac?

Ascending aorta

54

the Truncus arteriosus will become what final structure?

Roots + proximal portions of aorta and pulmonary trunk

55

which structure will give us the Outflow tracts of ventricles?

Conus cordis

56

the Proximal segment of the bulbus cordis will form the ______

right ventricle

57

the Left ventricle is formed from the

Primordial ventricle

58

the primordial atrium will eventually give rise to the:

Left and right auricles + trabeculated portions of atria

59

Primordial pulmonary vein and its branches will become what structure in a grown human?

Smooth-walled portion of left atrium

60

T/F: muscular portion of the Interventricular septum grows cranially toward the AV septum to fuse with it

False

the muscular portion grows toward the AV septum, but does not fuse with it
- a membranous portion closes the 2 ventricles

61

what closes the Interventricular foramen?

membranous portion of the interventricular septum