Neuro- olfactory and visual Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy final exam > Neuro- olfactory and visual > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro- olfactory and visual Deck (65):
1

the cell bodies of what type of neurons are found in the surface epithelium of the olfactory system

primary afferent neurons (SSA)

2

what is special about the primary afferent neurons of the olfactory system

they are replaced monthly

3

the centrally directed processes of the ______ ______ _____ neuron is the olfactory nerve

bipolar primary afferent

4

the olfactory nerve passes through what?

the cribiform plate

5

what type of olfactory neuron projects directly to the cerebral cortex

mitral cell, second order neuron

6

Olfactory dysfunction can be an early sign of what?

Alzheimer disease

7

what causes the severing of olfactory nerve fibers? where does this occur?

head trauma

-occurs at the cribiform plate

8

Lateral fibers from primary olfactory nerves terminate where?

Piriform lobe/cortex

9

what are the 3 parts the piriform cortex?

1) Uncus
2) Periamygdaloid cortex
3) Anterior entorhinal cortex

10

nerve fibers from the piriform lobe can reach the Posterior orbitofrontal cortex via what?

Mediodorsal nucleus (MD) section of the thalamus

11

what is special about the Posterior orbitofrontal cortex?

it is where we consciously appreciate smells

12

olfactory tract neurons arise from where? where do they terminate?

origin- olfactory bulb

termination- piriform cortex

13

cortical reorganization follows what?

olfactory loss

14

an image passing through the pupil is _____

inverted

15

what is a visual field? A retinal field?

Visual- what the patient sees

Retinal- region of the retina onto which the image is projected

16

where is the fovea centralis found?

within the macula lutea (directly behind cornea)

17

where are a high concentration of cones found?

fovea centralis

18

the peripheral retina has a high concentration of ____

rods

19

what is the peripheral retina sensitive to?

Light levels & movement

20

where is the "Blind spot" of the eye?

Optic disk

21

where do optic nerve fibers exit the eye?

the optic disk

22

the retina is the visual __________

neuroepithelium

23

name the layers of neurons of the retina

(From superficial to deep)
A) ganglion cells (either parvo or magnocellular)
B) Bipolar cells
C) Rods/Cones

24

which neuron provides high resolution images and registers color?

cones

25

ganglion midget/parvocellular cells serve the ______

macula

26

Ganglion midget cells are the origin of which visual system?

(AKA- ganglion Parvocellular cells)
- the "what" visual system

27

Ganglion parasol/magnocellular cells serve what?

the peripheral retina
(they are large cells)

28

ganglion parasol cells are the origin of what?

Magnocellular visual system

29

_____ cells help identify the object we are looking at

ganglion midget cells

30

_____ cells are found in the periphery. they help locate where an object is

parasol

31

the optic nerve gives a ______ projection

retinotopic

32

the optic nerve is covered by what?

meninges
-dura mater
-arachnoid mater
-pia mater

33

increased ____ _____ can affect the optic disk

CSF pressure

34

what structure sets our circadian rhythm?

Hypothalamus
-the suprachiasmatic nucleus

35

during the pupillary light reflex, afferent fibers from the optic nerve synapse on the _____

Pretectum

36

where do the efferent fibers from the Pretectum go during the pupillary light reflex?

to the edingter-westphal nucleus

then out in the oculomotor nerve

37

the pupillary light reflex is both ____ and ____

direct and consensual

38

T/F: the retina must always send signals to the amygdala thru the superior colliculus

false- the retina can also send info directly to amygdala

39

what types of images are involved with the amygdala?

emotionally significant

40

what are the projections from the Lateral geniculate body?

Geniculocalcarine projections

-become "optic radiations" and eventually reach the primary visual cortex

41

what is the name of the important fissure found in the occipital lobe?

Calcarine fissure

42

fibers from the lateral geniculate body travel to the _________

primary visual cortex

43

what are the areas of the occipital lobe important for vision?

- primary visual (straite) cortex

- secondary & tertiary (extrastriate) cortex

44

blindness due to a loss of the primary visual cortex can still do what?

determine object location by vision

45

a loss of what structure causes a person to "deny blindness"

primary visual cortex

known as "Anton syndrome"

46

Visual Agnosia is the loss of what?

secondary and/or tertiary visual cortex

47

what can sufferers of Visual Agnosia not do?

-Recognize (name) objects based on vision

-Know what object is used for

48

Charles Bonnet Syndrome causes what?

Visual hallucinations

49

what is Charles Bonnet syndrome associated with?

age and reduced vision:
A) cataracts
B) Glaucoma
C) Macular degeneration

50

T/F: the visual hallucinations can be emotionally disturbing to sufferers of Charles Bonnet syndrome

False- they are amusing or disturbing but not emtional

51

the visual processing occurring in the secondary & tertiary visual areas:

A) color and stereopsis
B) movement/direction/velocity
C) perceived motion of stationary targets as person moves

52

what region is responsible for processing visual info about movement/direction/velocity?

-V5/MT areas

(secondary & tert visual areas)

53

the MST (medial supr temporal area) is responsible for what?

-part of the dorsal stream

-visual processing- perceived motion of a stationary target when observer is moving

54

the "what"/ventral visual system: summary

A) midget parvocellular retinal ganglion cells

B) identification of visual image

C) processed as part of a ventral stream

55

The "where"/dorsal visual system: summary

A) parasol magnocellular retinal ganglion cells

B) location, movement of visual image

C) processed as part of a dorsal stream

56

What is the fusiform face area (FFA)?

-inferior aspect of occipitotemporal cortex

-identifies faces

57

what is Prosopagnosia? what causes it?

Loss of ability to name faces
- caused by lesion of FFA

58

T/F: the fusiform face area (FFA) is larger on the dominant hemisphere of the brain

false- larger on the non-dominant side

59

Which retinal neuron gives rise to the fibers of the optic nerve?

Ganglion cell (axons)

60

Name three structures in which primary visual fibers terminate

1) Amygdala
2) lateral geniculate body
3) Visual cortex (in the optic lobe)

61

a lesion of the Optic Nerve will lead to what?

monocular blindness
(one eye blind)

62

a lesion to the Optic Chiasm will causes what?

loss of lateral vision

63

Optic Tract lesion:

Loss in contralateral half of each eye

(ex- lesion of the right optic tract- vision from the left side of BOTH eyes)

64

Geniculocalcarine tract lesion:

Quadrantanopia
- loss of one quadrant from each eye
- example: loss of the upper right quadrant from BOTH eyes

65

injury to the Primary Visual Cortex:

Anton Syndrome (denial of blindness)