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Neuroanatomy final exam > histo- cardiovascular system > Flashcards

Flashcards in histo- cardiovascular system Deck (65):
1

what are the major components of the cardiovascular system? what is its major function?

Major components: Heart, blood vessels, blood

major function: transportation

2

the ____ are the receiving chambers of the heart

atria

3

the _____ are the discharging chambers of the heart

ventricles

4

what is the "pump for the systemic circuit"?

left side of the heart

5

what part of the heart is the "pump for the pulmonary circuit"

right side

6

Left Atrium – receives __________ blood

oxygenated

7

Right Atrium – receives _________ blood

deoxygenated

8

the Fibrous skeleton of the heart is composed of what parts?

-Four fibrous rings surrounding valve orifices

-Two fibrous trigones connecting rings

-Membranous portion of interventricular and interatrial septa

9

the heart wall is lined with a _____ membrane

serous

10

what is the Epicardium?

outer layer of the heart

covered with a visceral layer of serous pericardium

11

what is the Myocardium? what is it primarily composed of?

middle layer of the heart

composed primarily of the cardiac muscle

12

which heart layer contains the fibrous skeleton?

myocardium

13

what are the 3 components of the endocardium?

1) endothelial cells

2) layer of dense connective tissue & smooth muscle

3) deep connective tissue (contains intrinsic conduction system)

14

name the two atrioventricular valves:

1) Tricuspid Valve

2) Bicuspid or Mitral Valve

15

name the 2 semilunar valves:

1) Aortic Semilunar Valve

2) Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

16

Heart valves enforce _____ blood flow through the heart

one way

17

heart valves open/close in response to what?

pressure changes

18

There are no valves associated with entrances of which structures?

1) venae cavae
2) coronary sinus
3) pulmonary veins into the heart

19

heart valves are composed of what?

connective tissue with overlying endocardium

20

what are the 3 layers of heart valves?

1) spongiosa
2) fibrosa
3) Ventricularis

21

the spongiosa layer of heart valves:

-loose connective tissue covered in endothelium

-located on atrial or blood vessels side of valve

-made of collagen and elastic fibers

-functions as a shock absorber

22

Fibrosa layer of the heart valves:

-core of valve

contains fibrous extensions from the dense irregular connective tissue of skeletal rings of heart

23

Ventricularis layer of heart valves:

-dense connective tissue with layers of elastic fibers covered in endothelium

-adjacent to ventricular side of the valve.

24

from the atrial side to the ventricular side, name the layers of the heart valves

1) spongiosa
2) fibrosa
3) ventricularis

25

The cardiac muscle of the heart is able to _________________without impulses from the nervous system

depolarize and contract

26

what system allows the heart to depolarize and contract without input from the nervous system?

intrinsic cardiac conduction system

27

what are noncontractile cardiac cells called?

cardiac conducting cells or autorhythmic cells

28

_________ can generate an action potential without nervous system input.

cardiac conducting cells or autorhythmic cells

29

autorhythmic cells are organized into nodes and highly specialized conducting fibers/tracts called _________

Purkinje Fibers

30

what can effect the intrinsic heart rate?

-sympathetic input
-parasympathetic input
-hormones

31

what is the "pacemaker of heart"?

how does it determine heart rate?

Sinoatrial Node

determines heart rate through its sinus rhythm

32

from the sinoatrial node, impulses travel to the _________

by what pathway do they travel?

atrioventricular node

travel via the internodal pathway/tracts

33

why is the electric impulse delayed in the atrioventricular node?

to allow the for the atria to contract

34

from the AV node, where will impulses travel?

impulse travels from atrioventricular node to the right and left AV bundles

35

what is the only electrical connection between atria and ventricles?

Atrioventicular Bundle (AKA- Bundle of His)

36

where do the branches of the atrioventricular bundle go?

toward apex of heart through interventricular (IV) septum

37

where do pacemaker impulses terminate?

Purkinje Fibers

-finish pathway in interventricular septum, around apex of heart, and head back towards atria

38

what are the 2 Cells of the Intrinsic Conduction System?

1) Nodal cardiac cells

2) Purkinje fibers

39

Nodal Cardiac Cells: where are they found? what are they made of?

-Found in the SA and AV nodes

-made of modified cardiac muscle cells

40

Purkinje Fibers: where are they found? what are they made of?

-Found in AV bundle, bundle branches, and subendothelial branches (found in the ventricles)

-made of modified cardiac muscle cells

41

T/F: Purkinje fibers and nodal cardiac cells are larger than the contractile cardiac cells around them

False:

Nodal cardiac cells are smaller
Purkinje fibers are larger

42

Three major types of blood vessels are:

1) arteries
2) veins
3) capillaries

43

The walls of blood vessels (except the smallest) have three layers/tunicas. Name them.

1) Tunica Interna
2) Tunica media
3) tunica externa

44

what are the three parts of the tunica interna?

a. endothelium
b. basal lamina
c. subendothelial layer

45

Tunica Media – contains rings of _________

smooth muscles cells

46

In cross section, arteries will appear more ______ and veins more ______

arteries- open

veins- collapsed

47

what is the thickest layer of arteries? veins?

arteries- tunica media
veins- tunica externa

48

name the 4 types of arteries

1) Elastic or Conducting Arteries (Large Arteries)

2) Muscular or Distributing Arteries (Medium Arteries)

3) Small Arteries

4) Arterioles

49

walls of elastic/conducting arteries contain large amounts of ________

elastic fibers

50

which type of artery/arteries can contain vasa vasorum and nervi vascularis in their walls?

elastic arteries

muscular arteries

51

where are Continuous Capillaries found?

muscle, lung, and central nervous system

52

where are Fenestrated Capillaries found?

endocrine glands and at sites of fluid and metabolite absorption

53

Fenestrated capillaries contain oval pores called what?

fenestrations

54

where are discontinuous capillaries found?

Found in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow

55

in which capillaries can you see pinocytotic vessels?

Continuous & Fenestrated capillaries

56

which type of capillary can contain pericytes?

continuous capillaries

57

what structures form a functional unit called the microcirculatory bed?

1) the arteriole
2) the capillary network
3) and the postcapillary venule

58

Two Types of Vessels in the Capillary Network:

1) True Capillaries

2) Arteriovenous (AV) Anastomoses or Shunts

59

The More the Precapillary Sphincters Relax (and the smooth muscle of the AV shunt contract), the more…...

the more blood will pass through the true capillaries in the capillary beds.

60

The More the Precapillary Sphincters Contract, the more…...

the more blood will pass through the arteriovenous anastomoses and bypass the true capillaries.

61

name the 4 types of veins, starting from the smallest

1) venule
2) small veins
3) medium veins
4) large veins

62

what tunica layer is largest in veins? (especially large & medium veins)

Tunica adventitia

63

what makes up the valves found in the veins of the limbs?

thin folds of tunica intima– endothelial cells over a thin layer of connective tissue

64

a capillary consists of only one layer: they ______

endothelium

65

in blood vessels, the internal elastic membrane surrounds the ____________, and the external elastic membrane surrounds the ___________

internal elastic membrane- tunica interna/intima


external elastic membrane- tunica media