Neuro- cerebral localization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro- cerebral localization Deck (58):
1

prominent cell types of the cerebral cortex:

Pyramidal cells

2

all pyramidal cells are _____

excitatory

3

how many cell layers does the Neocortex contain?

6 cell layers

4

the Archicortex contains ____ cell layers

3 cell layers

5

where is the Archicortex is most prevalent?

Hippocampus

6

________ fibers travel from the thalamus to the cortex

Thalamocortical fibers

7

Where do association fibers travel?

from one region of the cortex to another on the same side

8

Commissural fibers go where?

From one side to the same region of the opposite side of the cortex

9

where do projection fibers travel to?

A) basal ganglia
B) limbic system
C) brainstem
D) spinal cord

10

visual projection travel in the ____________ tract (optic radiations)

Geniculocalcarine tract

11

T/F: a Geniculocalcarine tract contains the visual projection from one eye

false
-half from ipsilateral eye
-half from contralateral eye

12

The occipital cortex consists anatomically of _______ layers

horizontal layers

13

the occipital cortex is functionally organized in ______ ______ first

vertical columns

14

an injury to the visual association cortex will lead to:

-visual agnosia

can see an object but cannot recall what the object is used for, or what its name is

15

columns in the primary visual cortex will ______ for projections from each eye

alternate

16

what is the role of the Primary visual cortex in image processing?

-Detection of edges

-some "fill-in-the-blanks"

17

what is the role of the visual association cortex in image processing?

-Color

-stereopsis

18

what does the Parvocellular system process? the Magnocellular system?

Parvocellular- detail & color

Magnocellular- locomotion & movement

19

the Magnocellular peripheral vision system projects to where?

Superior parietal lobe

(the "where" system)

20

The Parvocellular macular vision system projects to:

inferior temporal lobe

(the "what" system)

21

the visual cortex is supplied by which artery?

Posterior cerebral artery

22

the FFA (Fusiform face area) is found in the __________ gyrus

Ocipitotemporal gyrus

23

damage to the FFA will lead to:

Prosopagnosia
-patient cannot recognize faces

24

A loss of the parietal cortex will lead to what?

Loss of sensation over contralateral body

25

overall function of the parietal cortex:

knows where everything is located and creates a plan to contact objects on and near body

(you need your parietal cortex to grab your mug of coffee)

26

the superior parietal lobule contains a map of the ______ ______

Contralateral body

27

input to the Superior parietal lobule

Touch and vision

-object location, size, shape, orientation

28

function of the superior parietal lobule

eye and arm movement
(uses the intraparietal sulcus)

29

what would be the affects of a lesion to the superior parietal lobule?

-Tactile agnosia
(AKA "astereoagnosia")

-optic ataxia

30

what is optic ataxia?

loss of ability to direct hand to a nearby object

31

Inferior parietal lobule: what are its inputs?

A) touch
B) vision (the main input)

-creates map of body and peripersonal space
- senses object movement and self movement

32

function of the inferior parietal lobule

-maps velocity & direction of visual objects

-directs eyes toward object

-assembles eye-hand movement

33

a lesion of the inferior parietal lobule will lead to what?

Apraxia-
inability to carry out learned motor act

gerstmann's syndrome-
Finger agnosia, can't read/write, left/right confusion

34

Sensory hemineglect syndrome: where is the lesion and what does it cause

Lesion of the NON-dominant inferior parietal lobule

loss of map of contralateral body and world
(where you don't realize you have a left or right side of your body)

35

what are the left and right temporal lobes specialized for? medial temporal lobe?

Left- speech

right- music

medial- memory

36

a lesion to the temporal lobe can cause ______

amnesia

37

Wernicke's area is mainly involved with ______ and ______

speech and language
(its part of the temporal lobe)

38

Wernicke's area is found where?

Posterior superior temporal gyrus

39

what are the effects of a lesion to Wernicke's area?

free-flowing speech with no content

40

the Frontal lobe: the lateral aspects are involved in ______ control

motor control

41

the premotor area of the frontal lobe will fire during ____________

potential motor actions

42

which artery supplies the lateral aspects of the frontal lobe? the medial aspects?

lateral- middle cerebral artery

medial- anterior cerebral artery

43

a lesion of the lateral primary motor area (frontal lobe) leads to what?

paralysis of CONTRALATERAL side
-mainly effects the hands

44

a leasion of the lateral premotor area of the frontal lobe will lead to what?

contralateral paresis (weakening) of upper arm

45

contralateral paralysis of the leg is the result of a lesion to the:

medial aspect of the primary motor area (frontal lobe)

46

effects of a lesion to the MEDIAL supplementary motor area (frontal lobe)

A) Akinesis- cannot initiate movement

B) mutism- cannot initiate speech

47

T/F: a lesion of the medial supplementary motor area on the dominant side will inhibit speech

true

48

the dorsolateral aspect of the prefrontal cortex will interact with what? what is it involved in?

interacts with orbitofrontal cortex

involved with working memory

plans motor responses

49

T/F: the dorsolateral aspect of the prefrontal cortex receives input from the parietal lobe only

false- also receives input from temporal cortex

50

the orbitofrontal cortex (of the prefrontal cortex) has reciprocal connections with the ______ and the _______

limbic system and the hypothalamus

51

what is the role of the orbitofrontal cortex?

- where emotions are consciously appreciated

- its a repository of "socially acceptable behavior"

52

T/F: speech and language are a function of the dominant hemisphere

true

53

the motor component of language is in the _____

frontal lobe- in Broca's area

54

what artery supplies Broca's area?

middle cerebral area

55

what happens when Broca's area is inujred?

Broca's expressive aphasia

- jerky, halting speech with content (meaningful, but not fluid and smooth)

56

T/F: the premotor area of the cortex is found posterior (dorsal) to the primary motor area

False- it is directly anterior (ventral)

57

nerve fibers from Wernicke's receptive speech area will travel to where?

Broca's expressive speech area

58

where do the output fibers of the superior parietal lobule go to?

premotor cortex