Flashcards in Neuro- cerebral localization Deck (58):
prominent cell types of the cerebral cortex:
all pyramidal cells are _____
how many cell layers does the Neocortex contain?
6 cell layers
the Archicortex contains ____ cell layers
3 cell layers
where is the Archicortex is most prevalent?
________ fibers travel from the thalamus to the cortex
Where do association fibers travel?
from one region of the cortex to another on the same side
Commissural fibers go where?
From one side to the same region of the opposite side of the cortex
where do projection fibers travel to?
A) basal ganglia
B) limbic system
D) spinal cord
visual projection travel in the ____________ tract (optic radiations)
T/F: a Geniculocalcarine tract contains the visual projection from one eye
-half from ipsilateral eye
-half from contralateral eye
The occipital cortex consists anatomically of _______ layers
the occipital cortex is functionally organized in ______ ______ first
an injury to the visual association cortex will lead to:
can see an object but cannot recall what the object is used for, or what its name is
columns in the primary visual cortex will ______ for projections from each eye
what is the role of the Primary visual cortex in image processing?
-Detection of edges
what is the role of the visual association cortex in image processing?
what does the Parvocellular system process? the Magnocellular system?
Parvocellular- detail & color
Magnocellular- locomotion & movement
the Magnocellular peripheral vision system projects to where?
Superior parietal lobe
(the "where" system)
The Parvocellular macular vision system projects to:
inferior temporal lobe
(the "what" system)
the visual cortex is supplied by which artery?
Posterior cerebral artery
the FFA (Fusiform face area) is found in the __________ gyrus
damage to the FFA will lead to:
-patient cannot recognize faces
A loss of the parietal cortex will lead to what?
Loss of sensation over contralateral body
overall function of the parietal cortex:
knows where everything is located and creates a plan to contact objects on and near body
(you need your parietal cortex to grab your mug of coffee)
the superior parietal lobule contains a map of the ______ ______
input to the Superior parietal lobule
Touch and vision
-object location, size, shape, orientation
function of the superior parietal lobule
eye and arm movement
(uses the intraparietal sulcus)
what would be the affects of a lesion to the superior parietal lobule?
what is optic ataxia?
loss of ability to direct hand to a nearby object
Inferior parietal lobule: what are its inputs?
B) vision (the main input)
-creates map of body and peripersonal space
- senses object movement and self movement
function of the inferior parietal lobule
-maps velocity & direction of visual objects
-directs eyes toward object
-assembles eye-hand movement
a lesion of the inferior parietal lobule will lead to what?
inability to carry out learned motor act
Finger agnosia, can't read/write, left/right confusion
Sensory hemineglect syndrome: where is the lesion and what does it cause
Lesion of the NON-dominant inferior parietal lobule
loss of map of contralateral body and world
(where you don't realize you have a left or right side of your body)
what are the left and right temporal lobes specialized for? medial temporal lobe?
a lesion to the temporal lobe can cause ______
Wernicke's area is mainly involved with ______ and ______
speech and language
(its part of the temporal lobe)
Wernicke's area is found where?
Posterior superior temporal gyrus
what are the effects of a lesion to Wernicke's area?
free-flowing speech with no content
the Frontal lobe: the lateral aspects are involved in ______ control
the premotor area of the frontal lobe will fire during ____________
potential motor actions
which artery supplies the lateral aspects of the frontal lobe? the medial aspects?
lateral- middle cerebral artery
medial- anterior cerebral artery
a lesion of the lateral primary motor area (frontal lobe) leads to what?
paralysis of CONTRALATERAL side
-mainly effects the hands
a leasion of the lateral premotor area of the frontal lobe will lead to what?
contralateral paresis (weakening) of upper arm
contralateral paralysis of the leg is the result of a lesion to the:
medial aspect of the primary motor area (frontal lobe)
effects of a lesion to the MEDIAL supplementary motor area (frontal lobe)
A) Akinesis- cannot initiate movement
B) mutism- cannot initiate speech
T/F: a lesion of the medial supplementary motor area on the dominant side will inhibit speech
the dorsolateral aspect of the prefrontal cortex will interact with what? what is it involved in?
interacts with orbitofrontal cortex
involved with working memory
plans motor responses
T/F: the dorsolateral aspect of the prefrontal cortex receives input from the parietal lobe only
false- also receives input from temporal cortex
the orbitofrontal cortex (of the prefrontal cortex) has reciprocal connections with the ______ and the _______
limbic system and the hypothalamus
what is the role of the orbitofrontal cortex?
- where emotions are consciously appreciated
- its a repository of "socially acceptable behavior"
T/F: speech and language are a function of the dominant hemisphere
the motor component of language is in the _____
frontal lobe- in Broca's area
what artery supplies Broca's area?
middle cerebral area
what happens when Broca's area is inujred?
Broca's expressive aphasia
- jerky, halting speech with content (meaningful, but not fluid and smooth)
T/F: the premotor area of the cortex is found posterior (dorsal) to the primary motor area
False- it is directly anterior (ventral)
nerve fibers from Wernicke's receptive speech area will travel to where?
Broca's expressive speech area