Emergency Management/ Cold Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Emergency Management/ Cold Emergencies Deck (41)
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1
Q

What is the EMS?

A

Police, Fire and Medical Personnel, and individuals around the pateint

2
Q

What is the first thing you should do when you arrive at the scene?

A

check the environment and make sure you are safe!

3
Q

Emergency Action Steps:

A

Check-Call-Care

4
Q

What are the 4 basic steps to emergency action?

A

Recognize that an emergency exists
Decide to act
Activate the EMS System
Give Care until help takes over

5
Q

How do you know that an emergency exists?

A

Unusual noises, sights, odors, appearance or behaviors

6
Q

What do you have to overcome and what are some side things that occur when deciding to act?

A

Overcoming barriers to act
Panic or fear of doing something wrong
Being unsure of the person’s condition or what to do
Assuming someone else will take action
The type of illness or injury
Fear of catching a disease
Fear of being sued
Being unsure when to cal 9-1-1

7
Q

How do you activate the EMS system?

A

Call 9-1-1 first
Stay on the call

8
Q

How long should you care the patient for?

A

When help takes over
Scene is unsafe
Obvious life, such as breathing
You are too exhausted or continue

9
Q

What are the rules for Good Samaritan Act?

A

Move a person only if their life is in danger
Ask for permission before giving care
Check the person for life-threatening conditions before giving further care
Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number
Continue to give care until trained personnel take over
Do not abandon the person or act in a reckless or negligent way

10
Q

When do you have to help someone?

A

designated by your employer
depending on the state
pre-existing relationship with other people
involved in the events that led to the person’s injury

11
Q

Act of omission

A

[failing to do
the right thing what a person with similar training would do

12
Q

An act of commission

A

doing something wrong

13
Q

Informed consent:

A

when you ask the patient for consent
Must inform the person: Who you are, your training, what you think is wrong with them, and what you plan to do

14
Q

Implied consent

A

law assumes they would accept care falls under Good Samaritan Act; must obatin permission from the patient if available life threatening= implied

15
Q

When do Good Samarital laws do no protect the first aid providers?

A

Who have caused further injury to a person
Who have given first aid poorly
Who have exceeded the scope of training

16
Q

What are the 3 C’s?

A

Check the scene,Call 9-1-1,Care for the person

17
Q

What do you do when you check the scene?

A

Check if it is safe, look for clues , look for how many people were involved, and look for people who are available to help

18
Q

When do you call 9-1-1?

A

Unconsciousness, breathing issues, strokes, seizures, chest pain, persistent abdominal pain or pressure, severe bleeding, vomiting blood, passing blood, poisoning, etc.
Downed electrical wires, fire, explosions, serious car accidents, people who cannot be moved, presence or poison, swiftly moving or rising water

19
Q

When do you call first?

A

An adult or child who is unconscious; child or infant you saw collapse; child or infant with heart problems

20
Q

When do you care first and for how long?

A

2 minutes of care then call 9-1-1
Unconscious child who you did not see collapse; drowning victim

21
Q

What do you do when you care for the person?

A

Check for life-threatening conditions
Do not further harm the victim
Monitor the person’s breathing and unconsciousness
Help the person rest in the most comfortable position
don’t transport a person

22
Q

What are the guidelines for transporting a person?

A

don’t transport the person when it aggravates an illness or injury
have someone with you
take the quickest orute

23
Q

When do cold emergencies occur?

A

Surrounded in an environment cooler than your body= heat loss

24
Q

What are the 2 Biological Defense Mechanisms

A

Vasoconstriction: tightening of blood vessels→ numbness
Shivering: involuntary/ contracting of muscles- body heat

25
Q

People susceptible to cold injuries (3-5)

A

Old people
Unfit
Dehydration
Lean people
Alcohol and caffeine
Nicotine
No nutrition
Illness and injury
Previous cold injury

26
Q

What causes hypothermia?

A

Low body temperature= a long exposure to very cold temperatures

27
Q

Risks for Hypothermia?

A

Older adults with inadequate food, clothing, or heating
Babies sleeping in cold bedrooms
People who remain outdoors for long periods-the homeless, hikers, hunters, skiers, snowboarders, ice skating, etc.
People who drink alcohol or use illicit drugs

28
Q

Signs and Symptoms for Hypothermia?

A

shivering, exhaustion, cool abdomen, low core temperature, confusion, fumbling hands, memory loss, slurred speech, drowsiness

29
Q

Treatment for Hypothermia?

A

Do not rub the patient
Remove wet clothing and put the victim into a warm room or shelter
Warm blankets and clothing
Use skin-to-skin contact
Warm chest, neck, head, and groin
Warm beverages

30
Q

What causes Frostbite?

A

Caused by freezing that results in the loss of feeling in the affected areas.
affects the nose, ears, cheeks, chin, fingers or toes.
can permanently damage the body, and severe cases can lead to amputation.

31
Q

Risks for Frostbite

A

Poor blood circulation, not properly dressed for extremely cold temperatures

32
Q

Signs and Symptoms for Frostbite

A

Redness or pain
Protect any exposed skin
White or garish yellow skin area
Firm or waxy skin
Numbness

33
Q

Treatment for Frostbite

A

Check if there is no hypothermia (medical assistance)
Warm room
Do not walk on frostbitten toes
Immerse the affected area in warm water
Use body heat
Do not rub or massage the frostbitten area
Do not use electric or artificial heating only body heat

34
Q

Prevention for Frostbite?

A

The limit being outside in cold, wet, or windy weather
Dress warmly and cover yourself
Wear mittens
Wear socks that fit well
Watch for signs of frostbite
Protect yourself by carrying emergency supplies
Don’t drink alcohol in cold weather
Eat balanced meals and stay hydrated
Exercise

35
Q

What causes trench foot?

A

Feet are wet for long periods of time

36
Q

What are symptoms of Trench foot?

A

Tingling and/or itching sensation
Pain, swelling, cold and blotchy skin, numbness, and a prickly or heavy feeling in the foot.
Foot may be red, dry, and painful after it becomes warm.
Blisters may form, followed by skin and tissue drying and falling off.
In severe and untreated involve the toes, heel, or entire foot.

37
Q

Prevention for Trench foot?

A

Air-dry and elevate your feet
And wear dry shoes and socks

38
Q

Treatment for Trench Foot

A

Air-dry and elevate your feet
And wear dry shoes and socks
Soak in warm water for 5 minutes and apply warm packs
Do not wear socks when sleeping or resting
Medical assistance

39
Q

What causes chilblain?

A

Painful inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin in response to cold not freezing air
Causes itching, red patches, swelling and blistering on hands and feet
Clears up 1-3 weeks, especially when weather gets warmer

40
Q

Treatment for Chilblain

A

Use lotions and protect from cold
Can lead to infection and severe damage if untreated

41
Q

gangrene

A

when the tissue dies