Musculoskeletal & Soft Tissue Injuries Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal & Soft Tissue Injuries Deck (61)
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1
Q

What are bones made up of and what can they also manufacture?

A

dense tissue, supplied by nerves and blood vessels
Some manufacture red blood cells
*bleeding can be serious when broken

2
Q

Why are kids and older adults more likely to have their bones broken?

A

Kid’s bones are more softer and porous and calcium has not been entrenches into the bone for more strength
Older bones lose mass and density as body leeches calcium

3
Q

What are the 4 types of bones and give examples?

A

long ones(leg and arm), short bones(hand feet), flat bones (ribs and collarbone), and irregular bones (skull and vertebrae)

4
Q

What is a joint and what are two joints opposite in ability of motion?

A

Two or more bones come together in a single place- allow movement
Shoulders-wide range of motion
Hip- limited motion

5
Q

What are ligaments?

A

Tough fibrous connective tissues

6
Q

What happens when you force a joint beyond it’s normal range of motion? Which joints are more serious? Describe the symptoms of the weight bearing joint?

A

Ligament can tear- swelling, pain and deformity.
Ankle and knees- pain, lose of motion and often deformity

7
Q

How do muscle produce movement?

A

contracts and shortens

8
Q

Where are the voluntary muscles located?

A

Arms, legs, upper back, hips and covers the ribs and abdomen

9
Q

What are the involuntary muscles located?

A

Not controlled by conscious thought
Ex. esophagus, heart, stomach and colon

10
Q

How are the skeletal muscles attached to the bones?

A

directly or by tendons

11
Q

What is the relationship between musles and jon

A

Muscles allow the joints to move

12
Q

What are tendons and what happens if there are too much force?

A

A shiny white band that attaches to the muscles and through a network of tiny fibers, connects with a bone
Too much force can pull a tendon loose and even a small piece of the bone

13
Q

What are ligaments?

A

Connect bone to bone across a joint

14
Q

What is a sprain?

A

Injury to the ligaments- stretched and partially or completely torn

15
Q

What are the symptoms of sprains?

A

pain, swelling, deformity, discoloration of the skin and inability to use the affected part normally

16
Q

What are the common places for sprains?

A

thumb, fingers, knee and ankle

17
Q

What do you to if someone has a sprain?

A

perform RICE

18
Q

What does the R in Rice stand for and explain?

A

Rest: stay off the injured part completely and splint it

19
Q

What does the I in Rice stand for and explain?

A

Ice: Use cool packs, crushed ice or cold towels or immerse it for 10-20 minutes every 1-2 hours; process should continue for the first 24-48 hours
Do not put ice on someone who has issues with the cold
Apply ice by putting it in a plastic bag and having something in between

20
Q

What does the C in Rice stand for and explain?

A

Compression:Use a compression bandage
2 inch wide for injuries of the wrist and hand
3 inch wide for the injuries of the arm, elbow or ankle
4 -6 inch wide for leg knee or ankle
Should wear it for the first 18-24 hours except cold pack time
Make sure it is not too tight and below the injured area

21
Q

What does the E stand for in RICE and explain?

A

Elevation: limits circulation, reduces swelling, and encourages lympathic drainage; elevate to heart level

22
Q

What is a dislocation?

A

Injury to the joints- separation of the bones from the joints

23
Q

What are some signs and symptoms of dislocation?

A

pain, tenderness, deformity, difficulty or inhabitlity to move a joint

24
Q

What is the treatment for dislocation?

A

Assess capillary refill and check distal pulses and asses nerve function
Immobilize the joint- check the capillary refill and pulse aftering splintiing
Use RICE
Treat for shock- warm and comfy

25
Q

What is a strain?

A

Soft tissue injury of the muscle
Commonly occurs to the back

26
Q

What are the symptoms of a strain?

A

extreme pain, severe tenderness, pain or stiffness if the muscle is moved, bump or indentation that can be seen or felt, loss of function of the injured muscle

27
Q

What is the treatment of a strain?

A

Immobilize the injury
Place the victim in a comfortable position
Apply cold as describe in step 2 of RICE
Activate EMS

28
Q

What are the 3 types of force can a fracture be caused by?

A

Direct, indirect and twisting force

29
Q

What is direct force?

A

from something actually hitting you

30
Q

What is indirect force?

A

force from falling or something else that causes a fracture

31
Q

What is twisting force?

A

When one part of the bone stays stationary which the other part twsists and fractures

32
Q

What are some signs and symptoms of fractures?

A

Deformity pain and tenderness increased skin temperature at injury site, crepitus) a grating noise), rapid and immediate swelling, discoloration or redness, open wound, joint locked into position, guarding (protecting an injured part), and possible loss of function

33
Q

What is an Abrasion?

A

top layer of the skin is removed with little or no blood loss
Can be painful because nerve endinsg are taken away with the skin
AKA scrape or road rash

34
Q

What is a lacteration?

A

cut skin with jagged irregular edges
Due to forceful tearing of the skin

35
Q

What are incisions?

A

has smooth edges and resemble a surgical or paper cut
Bleeding depends on depth location and size

36
Q

What are punctures?

A

deep, narrow wounds in the skin and underlying organs
Stab wound from a nail or knife
Risk of infection is high

37
Q

What is an avulsion?

A

loose flap of skin

38
Q

What is the treatment for open wounds?

A

PPE or use gauze pads, clean cloths, plastic wraps or bags, etc.OR have the person apply direct pressure with a clean cloth
Expose the wound. If necessary remove clothing from the area
Use direct pressure or other methods
If there is a shallow wound wash the inside soap and water. Run water on the wound
If the wound is deep or has a high risk of infection, seek professional care and if you are far from them clean it as best as you can
Anything not flushed out should be manually removed
If bleeding restarts DIRECT PRESSURE

39
Q

Wat do you do when covering a small wound?

A

thin layer of antibiotic ointment and sterile dressing

40
Q

What do you do when covering a large wound?

A

large, deep and contaminate wounds should be managed by professional

41
Q

What are the 2 types of amputations?

A

Crushing and clean

42
Q

What is a crushing amputation?

A

when an extremity is being crushed or mashed off.
Most common and not able to be reattached

43
Q

What is a clean amputation?

A

: clean cut
Has a chance of being reattached

44
Q

What is the treatment for amputation?

A

Call 911
Use direct pressure
Wrap the amputated part in a sterile gauze or clean cloth that has been wet with water and put the wrapper part in a waterproff container then out it in a containeer of ice. Send the part with the person
Ask other people to search for it if not found

45
Q

What is the treatment for an avulsion?

A

Put the skin flap back in its normal position
Cover with a sterile or clean dressing and apply pressure
If bleeding continues take advanced measures- tourniquet or hemostatic dressing

46
Q

What do you do if there is a sliver (splinter)?

A

Remove with tweezers
Wash the area with soap and water
Apply antibiotic
Apply an adhesive bandage

47
Q

What do you do if there is a large object that is impaled?

A

Do not move the object
Stabilize the object with bulky dressing or padding around the base
Apply direct pressure around the base of the object if bleeding
If necessary reduce the length of the impaled object if necessary
Call 9-1-1

48
Q

What is a contusion?

A

blood dispersed in tissues- pain and swelling; bruise

49
Q

What is a hematoma?

A

a pool of blood surrounding a major bone fracture or any injury to a large blood vessel. Lump with discoloration

50
Q

What is a crush injury? List some symptoms?

A

extreme forces that injure the vital organs and bones.
Discoloration, swelling pain and loss of use

51
Q

What do you do during a closed injury

A

Control bleeding by applying an ice pack for no more than 20 minutes. Wait atleast for 20 minutes beforeapplying it again
If it involves a limb, apply an elastic bandage for compression. Splint can help
Check for fracture
Elevate the extremity above the person’s heart level to decrease pain and swelling

52
Q

Treatment from clamping objects

A

Remove hand from clamp, apply lubricant, call 911?

53
Q

How do you treat a chest injury?

A

EMS
Occlusive dressing, tape it on 3 sides
Leave one corner untaped

54
Q

How do you treat abdominal injuries?

A

EMS, no touch organs
Clean moist, sterile dressing & streile gauze
Occlusive material
Wrap with bandage

55
Q

What do you do if there is a bite?

A

Wash hands?

56
Q

Treatment for Fractures

A

DOTS (deformity, open wound, tenderness and swelling) one or more indicates broken bone
Call 911 if the extremity is blue or really pale; do not move it
If there is bleeding, apply pressure to the egdes of the wound. DO not push the bone and cover the wound & exposed bone with a dressing.
If there is no bleeding and the bleeding has been treated and EMS will not arrive soon then perform RICE.
Then, stabilize the injured part with a splint and check for CSM
If the EMS will be arriving soon either you or the person may hold the injured part.

57
Q

What is CSM and how do you check it?

A

Circulation: check for pulse
Sensation: lightly touch or squeeze one of the person’s fingers and ask which finger is being squeezed (or toes)
Movement; ask them to wiggle their fingers (or toes)

58
Q

Which fractures should be prioritized?

A

Spinal injuries

59
Q

Types of Splints:

A

Rigid Splint- commercial splint
Traction Splint: pulls in the opposite directly of the injury- only for broken thigh
Improvised Splint

60
Q

Where are bites more common with?

A

Dogs, then snakes. Usually a concern with little kids

61
Q

Degloving

A

a traumatic injury that results in top layers of the skin and tissue being torn away from the underlying muscle, connective tissue or bone