Shock and Bleeding Flashcards

1
Q

What is shock?

A

body cells do not receive enough oxygenated blood= hypoperfusion
A state of failure and collapse of the cardiovascular system in which blood circulation decreases and eventually ceases.

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2
Q

What components determine the damage of shock?

A

on which tissue or organ is deprived of oxygen+ how long

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3
Q

What is the perfusion triangle?

A

Heart (pump function); blood vessels (container function) and blood (content function)

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4
Q

What are the Cv causes of shock?

A

pump failure, low fluid volume and poor vessel function

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5
Q

Pump failure

A

the pumping of the heart does not function properly due to damage to the myocardium,
→pulmonary edema (buildup of blood into the lungs).

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6
Q

Low fluid volume:

A

lack of adequate blood volume delivered to the body tissues; may be due to internal/external bleeding, thermal burns, or severe dehydration.
Hypovolemic (low-volume) shock: severe thermal burns- plasma leaks into burned portion
Dehydration attributes to shock

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7
Q

Poor vessel function:

A

Neurogenic shock- damage to the nervous system organs can cause cut off of electrical impulses to the blood vessels which tell them to contract. The blood vessels becomed too dilated as a result and the body is unable to fill the enlarged blood vessels.

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8
Q

Combined vessel & content failure:

A

toxins in the body cause damage to the blood vessels, causing leakage and failure to contract. Injured vessel walls also cause the loss of plasma, and this combination causes septic shock.

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9
Q

What are 3 causes of shock non-cardiovascular?

A

respiratory insufficency, psychogenic shock, and anaphylaxis

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10
Q

Respiratory insufficiency:

A

obstruction of the airways which makes it difficult to breathe and cuts off oxygen supply to the blood.Deoxygenated blood circulation does not help the victim.

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11
Q

Psychogenic shock:

A

a reaction of the nervous system which causes the blood vessels to dilate and blood to pool, which reduces blood supply to the vital organs (the brain, the lungs, etc.)– hearing bad news

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12
Q

Anaphylaxis

A

a reaction of the immune system to a severe allergy that causes dilation which causes poor oxygenation and poor delivery of blood to the tissues.

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13
Q

General Signs & Symptoms of Shock:

A

Cool/clammy/pale/ashy/flushed/itchy skin
Bluish lips and mouth
Hives
Swelling of the face
Rapid pulse & rapid breathing
Nausea or vomiting
Dull eyes

Weakness or fatigue
Dizziness or fainting
Anxiety
Agitation
Difficulty breathing
Chest tightness
Unresponsiveness

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14
Q

When would you expect a victim to go into shock?

A

severe bleeding, severe fractures, abdominal or chest injuries, severe infections, signs of a heart attack, anaphylaxis, severe burns, or signs of a damaged spinal cord.

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15
Q

What are the 3 stages of shock?

A

Compensated shock
Decompensated shock
Irreversible shock

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16
Q

Compensated shock

A

the earliest stage of shock at which the body can still compensate for blood loss

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17
Q

Decompensated shock

A

blood pressure begins to fall and the function of oxygenation and perfusion begins to worsen

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18
Q

Irreversible shock

A

the final stage of shock which causes irreversible damage to the body and may result in death fi not treated immediately

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19
Q

Treating shock

A

Call 911, lay the person flat on their back, elevate their legs and do not give food or drink. Check for and control any severe bleeding. If no breathing or pulse is detected, begin CPR immediately. If the victim is breathing but unresponsive, roll them onto their side to prevent airway obstruction and use blankets to minimize heat loss.

20
Q

Anaphylactic Shock

A

Anaphylaxis is the body’s reaction to severe allergic triggers–it happens quickly and it can be life-threatening. An epinephrine auto-injector (AKA an EpiPen) can be used to stop anaphylaxis. To treat anaphylactic shock, look for signs of a severe allergic reaction and call 911 if identified. If the reaction is mild, help the victim administer asthma rescue inhalers and/or provide antihistamine. If the reaction is severe, help the victim administer their epinephrine auto-injector and wait for EMS to arrive.

21
Q

How much blood does the average person have? And when will they go into shock?

A

5-6 quarts of blood flowing through their body. An adult will go into shock at the loss of 1 quart, and a child will go into shock at the loss of ½ quart.

22
Q

How do I determine the severity of bleeding?

A

Is it internal or external?
Is the blood arterial, venous, or capillary?
Where is the wound?
What color is the blood?
The physical condition
How fast?
Age and weight?

23
Q

Hemophilia

A

a condition in which the blood doesn’t clot properly when bleeding.

24
Q

Symptoms of hemophilia

A

spontaneous and excessive bleeding, large and deep bruises, tingly bubbly pain, and reduced range of motion.

25
Q

3 types of blood wounds

A

Arterial: bright red-squirting
Capillary- oozing medium red
venous- dark red- flowing

26
Q

Which type of bleeding is the most difficult to control?

A

Arterial because there is a large amount of blood lost in a short amount of time. Does not clot well due to high blood flow

27
Q

The body responds naturally to bleeding in two ways:

A

Blood vessel spasms and clotting

28
Q

Blood Vessel Spasms

A

Severed blood vessels draw back into tissue and constrict to slow bleeding

29
Q

Clotting

A

platelets in the blood form a clot which serves as a protective covering for the wound (scabs). Clotting takes longer for people if they’ve lost lots of blood or are on anticoagulants/aspirin.

30
Q

How should dressing be?

A

thick, soft, compressible and lint free, Should be sterile

31
Q

What is the purpose of a bandage?

A

pressure

32
Q

What determines the seriousness of a nosebleed?

A

Duration (serious if over 20 mins)
Heaviness & amount of blood lost

If it has developed after a serious injury
If other symptoms arise (difficulty breathing, nausea, etc.)

33
Q

How do you treat a nosebleed?

A

Lean forward, pinch nose and cold compress

34
Q

Internal bleeding signs

A

Broken ribs, chest bruises, rigid abdomen, Bright red blood from mouth or rectum, urinal blood or non-menstrual vaginal bleeding, pain, tenderness, bruising, swelling, traumatic injuries (hard fall, car accident, sports injury, etc.)

35
Q

Internal bleeding treatment

A

Monitor breathing, lay the victim on their side if they vomit, treat for shock, cover with a blanket for warmth, treat the suspected bleeding, at an extremity with a splint, and call 911 immediately.

36
Q

Precautions to take when controlling bleeding:

A

Wear medical exam gloves
If unavailable use plastic bags
Dispose of items contaminated with blood
Perform hand hygiene

37
Q

When does severe blood loss occur?

A

Amputations
Gunshot wounds
Animal bites
Car accidents

38
Q

Treating for bruises

A

Apply ice for 20 mins
Apply elastic compression bandage
Apply layers of gauze pads between bandage and injury

39
Q

When is bleeding life-threatening?

A

Blood spurting out of a wound
Blood-soaked clothing
Blood pooling on the ground
Amputated limbs

40
Q

How do you control bleeding?

A

Put on PPE
Determine the cause and location of the wound to expose it (wipe off excess blood if necessary)
Place a sterile gauze pad or clean cloth over the entire wound
Apply direct pressure to the wound and keep it elevated
Open the airways and continue to monitor for shock
Repeat dressing if the gauze becomes too bloody
Once bleeding has stopped, wrap a bandage over the dressing to maintain direct pressure on the wound.

41
Q

What are the elements of dressing?

A

directly touches and covers an open wound
holds dressing in place (helps with pressure, swelling, and stability)

42
Q

What is a tourniquet?

A

a device that is wrapped tightly, with a width of at least 3 inches, around an extremity to stop blood flow when direct pressure is unsuccessful should be two inches above the wound

43
Q

When should a tourniquet be used?

A

if there is massive bleeding at the limbs

44
Q

What do you do if there is no tourniquet available?

A

tuff gauze into the wound and continue application of direct pressure

45
Q

Who removes the tourniquet?

A

the physician