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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (86):
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Growth hormone

Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland that regulates cell division and protein synthesis needed for growth

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Substance originating in an organ, gland or body part that is secreted directly into the bloodstream and carried to another part of the body to began a chemical action to increase the activity of that part or to increase another secretion

Hormone

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Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that protects against stress and is used in protein and carbohydrate metabolism

Glucocorticoid steroid

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Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that is primarily involved in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes through the actions of ion transport in the renal tubes

Mineral corticoid

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Steroid

Hormone produced by adrenal cortex

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Endogens

Produced or arising from within a cell or organism itself

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Exogens

Originating outside the cell or organism

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Replacement therapy

Therapeutic replacement of lost body substances

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Secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of another hormone; also known as the stimulating hormone

Tropic hormone

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Target organ

Site to which the effects of a drug or therapeutic agent are primarily directed

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Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

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Osteoporosis

Disease that reduces bone mass

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Hypoglycemia

Decreased blood glucose level

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Hyperglycemia

Increased blood glucose level

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A stimulus produces a response that reverses or reduces a previous stimulation, thereby stopping the initial response

Negative feedback

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Symptoms common to endocrine diseases

Mental deviations, exceptional changes in energy level, skin-hair-nail changes, blood pressure changes, sexual irregularities, changes in urinary output, heart irregularities

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Common side effects for medications for endocrine disorders

Nervousness, increased appetite, headache, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, edema, weight gain

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What may hormones be used for

Replacement therapy, therapeutically, endocrine diagnostic testing, inflammatory processes

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What are somatotropins also known as

Growth hormone

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Are somatotropins expensive

Yes

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How may somatropins affect blood sugars

May increase or decrease

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How does somatotropin hyper-secretion affect adults

Acromegaly

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How does somatotropin hypo- secretion affect children

Dwarfism

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Are somatotropins prescribed for any short child

No

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What are the three thyroid hormones

Thyroxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin

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Hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones is what in children

Cretinism
(absence / deficiency

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Hypo secretion of thyroid hormones is what in adults

Thickening of skin, blunting of senses & intellect, labored breathing

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What does calcitonin regulate

Calcium levels

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What regulates calcitonin

Parathyroid glands

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Hypo-secretion of calcitonin may be the result of what situations

Lack of iodine, surgical removal of the thyroid, radiation therapy

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What time should we take replacement medication and how long will replacement therapy last

Take in the morning to prevent insomnia.

Replacement is lifelong

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What do we evaluate in a patient who is taking long term steroid therapy

Weight gain, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac function, sodium and water retention

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How do Glucocorticoid steroid act on the body

They are potent anti- inflammatory agents

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What are the adverse effects of Glucococorticoid steroid

Buffalo hump & moon face

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What do glucocorticoid steroids cause the kidney to do

Retention of sodium

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How may glucocorticoid steroids be administered

IM, IA, topically, oral

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What is the distinct method of dosing for glucocorticoid steroids

Alternate day therapy & declining dosage

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Can insulin be given orally

No

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What does insulin aid in utilizing

Glucose. for energy

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What is insulin used to convert

Glucose for energy

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What does insulin do to blood sugar

Lowers or decreases them

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List sources of insulin

Beef, pork, human recombinant DNA, human derivatives

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What life expectancies increase the need for insulin

Stress, pregnancy, illness, trauma

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How is insulin administered

Injection (preferred) & inhalation

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Are there variations in insulin per onset and course of action? If yes how do they vary?

Yes. some are rapid acting, moderate and long lasting, time of onset, peak of action, duration of action

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Insulin.
Name DNA derivatives

Humulin, novalin, lantus

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Insulin.
Name animal derivatives

Iletin & purified

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Insulin.
Name a modified derivative and list why it is the preferred insulin

Humalogy - because is from human form, less antigenic

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Insulins.
List the types from shortest to longest onset of action

Lispro-Humalog
Regular
NPH/Lente
Untralente, Lantus

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Insulins.
List the types from shortest to longest duration of action

Lispro-Humalog
Regular
NPH/Lente
Untralente
Lantus

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How do we store pre filled syringes

Vertically with the needle up to prevent clogging and refrigerated

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How long can regular insulin be stored at room temperature

2-4 weeks

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Which insulins need to be discarded of cloudy

Lispro, Lantus, regular

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List the signs and symtoms of Hypoglycemia / insulin shock

Sudden onset, pale moist skin, fast pulse, no change in BP, shallow respirations

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List the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia / diabetic coma

Dry flushed skin, fruity breath, intense thirst, low BP, fast weak pulse

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List the insulin delivery systems

Pen w/cartridge, jet injecter, portable insulin pump, intransal spray, patch, inhaled powders

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What are the most common side effects to insulin

Hypoglycemia, blurred vision

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Does smoking delay absorption of insulin

Yes

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Insulin.
OTC preps cause problems in

DM patients

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Does pregnancy increase the need for insulin

Yes

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Insulin.
What do we worry about with diabetics and OTC preps

Sugar content

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Does pregnancy increase or decrease the need for insulin

Increases

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How long should a patient wait after insulin administration to smoke and why?

At least 30 mins because smoke delays absorption

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DM1 patients are most frequently given what med for treatment

Insulin

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DM2 patients are most frequently given what meds for treatment

Sulfonylureas

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How do anti-diabetic meds work

They enter the beta-cells, causing release of insulin, thereby lowering blood sugar levels

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Do DM2 patients secrete any endogenous insulin

Yes

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What is the goal of treatment

To keep blood glucose levels in check

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Other than meds, what is important to teach the diabetic patient about their treatment of DM

Lifestyle and diet change

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Sulfonylureas are derivatives of what

Sulfonamide antibiotics

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Do sulfonylureas have various times of onsets and durations

Yes & yes

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How do sulfonylureas work on the body

They enter the beta cells, causing release of insulin in the pancreas, lowering blood sugars

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What effect of sulfonylureas is most severe in the elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patient

Hypoglycemia

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How do thiazolidinediones or glitazones work NIDDM

Increase activity
( they work with NIDDM that may not respond to other meds )

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What kind of DM are thiazolidinediones useful in

Type 2
( insulin resistant )

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What are the side effects of thiazolidinediones

Headache edema & weight gain

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Do thiazolidinediones cause hypoglycemia

No

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How might avandia & actos interact with oral contraceptives

30% loss of contraception protection

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Hyperglycemics are used for what diseases

Pancreatic cancer

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What are the side effects of Hyperglycemics

Constipation, anorexia, abdominal pain, nausea vomiting, heart conditions

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What do we teach patients about insulin injection sites

Rotate

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What does thyroid replacement therapy do in patients who also have DM

Levels need to be monitored

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What must be done prior to discontinuing prolonged steroid use

Administer declining dosages, then taper off

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What are the increased risks of steroid use with the digitalis group and NSAIDs

Increased digoxin toxicity, increased bleeding tendencies, & increased ulcers

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How do target hormones respond to target organs

They go to the organ and attach to it.

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What endocrine organ controls target hormones

The hypothalamus