Flashcards in Epidemiology and GI disease- public health Deck (13):
What is epidemiology?
The study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why.
What is incidence rate?
The number of new cases of a disease occurring in a population during a specific period of time divided by the number of persons exposed to risk of developing the disease during that time. Usually expressed per 1000.
What is the prevalence rate of a disease?
The number of cases of a disease present in a population at a specific point in time divided by the number of persons at risk of having the disease at that point in time.
What is an endemic disease?
a disease that is found in a specific geographic region or a specific race of people.
What is an epidemic disease?
Epidemic describes a disease that is widespread, affecting an atypically large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time.
What is a pandemic disease?
What is the difference between a pandemic and an epidemic?
a pandemic covers a much wider geographical area, often worldwide. A pandemic also infects many more people than an epidemic. An epidemic is specific to one city, region or country, while a pandemic goes much further than national borders.
What does morbidity mean?
The rate of illness
What does mortality mean?
The rate of death
What is a zoonosis?
a disease, primarily of animals, that is occasionally transmitted to humans
Examples: avian and swine flu
What is a reservoir, in the context of infectious diseases?
A source of viable infectious agents from which individuals may be infected.
What is a vector?
An agent (usually insect or animal) able to carry pathogens from one host to another
What is a vehicle, in the context of infectious diseases?
A non-living source of pathogens that infect large numbers of individuals (food, water, etc)