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Biochem block 3 > ETC > Flashcards

Flashcards in ETC Deck (28):
1

Where does the ETC take place?

inner mitochondrial membrane (all tissues)

2

what are the products of ETC?

CO2
H2O
NADH
FADH2

3

what is the permeability difference of the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane?

inner membrane= impermeable to most things
outer membrane= freely permeable to most things

4

what structures make up the inner membrane?

cistae (convoluted structures that increase SA)

5

How many different complexes are found on the inner mitochondrial membrane (part of the ETC)?

5

6

What is the specific function of Complex V?

catalyzes ATP synthesis and is called ATP synthase

7

what are the 2 domains of Complex V?

F0 and F1

8

what metal do cytochromes share in common?

iron

9

what special metal does complex IV have in addition to iron?

copper

10

NADH is a strong electron _________ and O2 is a strong electron _________

donor; acceptor

11

as electrons travel through the chain, which side of the membrane are protons pumped too?

the outside

12

what kind of gradient is created from the pumping of protons (i.e. what is in and what is out)?

outside is more positive
outside is lower pH

13

what does Amytal (barbiturate) interfere w/?

Complex 1

14

what does Rotenone interfere w/?

Complex 1

15

What does Antimycin A interfere w/?

Complex 3

16

how does cyanide act as a poison?

it IRREVERSIBLY binds to the FE3+ in Complex 4

17

how does carbon monoxide affect the ETC?

binds reversibly to Complex 4

18

how does sodium azide affect the ETC?

binds to Fe3+ in Complex 4

19

how does oligomycin affect the ETC?

binds to the F0 domain in complex 5; eventually the ETC will build up a gradient that can't be dissipated and it will stop

20

what are uncoupling proteins??

proteins found in the mitochondrial membrane that allow H+ to flow back into the cytosol without going through complex V (i.e. making ATP)

21

what do proteins going through uncoupling proteins produce?

heat through non shivering thermogenesis

22

what are synthetic uncouplers?

compounds that increase the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to protons

23

what are 2 examples of synthetic uncouplers?

salicylic acid
2,4-dinitrophenol

24

where do reactive oxygen species come from in the ETC?

the incomplete reduction of O2 to water

25

what is reperfusion injury?

after a period of time w/o oxygen (and thus no ETC activity) and the sudden introduction of oxygen, a large burst of ETC activity can occur that causes a huge production of ROS

26

what in the cell can neutralize ROS?

superoxide dismutase
catalase
glutathione peroxidase
antioxidant vitamins

27

what type of diseases will result from mutations in oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria

neuropathies
myopathies

28

what are the basic steps of apoptosis in mitochondria?

cytochrome C exit through pores
cytochrome C interacts w/ proapoptotic factors that activate caspases
caspases cleave proteins that cause apoptosis