Lipid Classification Flashcards Preview

Biochem block 3 > Lipid Classification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipid Classification Deck (37):
0

What are the two forms of fatty acids

Free fatty acids
Esterified fatty acids

1

What in the blood helps transfer fatty acids?

Serum albumin

2

What are the uses of free fatty acids?

Structural components of membrane lipids
Membrane anchoring proteins
Energy
Precursors for prostaglandins

3

What's is the main use of esterified fatty acids

Precursors to form more complex molecules

4

Fatty acids are amphipathic... Which part is hydrophobic and which part is hydrophilic

Hydrophobic :chain
Hydrophilic: head

5

What are the characteristics of a saturated fatty acid

Bad for you
No double bonds
Solid at room temp

6

What are the characteristics of unsaturated fatty acids

1 double bond at least
Good for you
Reduced Tm
Increased fluidity

7

What is the carbon the carboxyl group attached to called

Alpha carbon

8

What are the two essential fatty acids plants provide humans need

Linoleic acid
Alpha-linoleic acid

9

When is arachodonic acid essential for humans?

If linoleic acid is deficient

10

What would increase ACC synthesis for de novo fatty acid synthesis

Prolonged high calorie high carb diets

11

What would decrease ACC synthesis in denovo fatty acid synthesis

Low calorie or high fat diet

12

What is the major rate limiting step for de novo synthesis of fatty acids

ACC

13

What are the two major sources of NADPH as it is needed for de novo synthesis of fatty acids

Oxidation of malate to pyruvate
HMP shunt

14

What are desaturases

Enzymes in the SER that can introduce double bonds into lcfa

15

What are the first second and third fats on TAG

First- saturated
Second - unsaturated
Third- unsaturated or saturated

16

What are the two major building blocks to make TAG

Glycerol phosphate
Acyl CoA

17

How can you make glycerol phosphate from the glycolytic pathway

DHAP can be reduced to it

18

How can the liver exclusively make glycerol phosphate

Uses glycerol kinase to convert free glycerol

19

How does the liver store TAG?

VLDL

20

How does adipose tissue store TAG

Cytosolic lipid droplets

21

What are the two major enzymes that help release fatty acids from TAG?

Adipose lipase
Hormone sensitive lipase

22

What is HSL (hormone sensitive lipase) activated by

cAMP dependent protein kinases

23

What indirectly deactivates HSL?

Insulin

24

What two parts of the body cannot use fatty acids for energy?

Brain and RBCs

25

The major pathway for obtaining energy from fatty acids is beta-oxidation. What are the products of beta oxidation

Acetyl CoA
NADH
FADH2

26

How do long chain fatty acyls get into the mitochondria

Carnotine shuttle

27

What is the Carnotine shuttle inhibited by?

Malonyl CoA

28

What is the consequence of a Carnotine deficiency

The body is unable to use lcfa as fuel

29

What are reasons for a primary carnitine deficiency

Cat1 or Cat2 genetic defect
Renal tubular reabsorption of carnitine
Carnitine uptake by cells

30

Briefly describe beta oxidation

Four step process
Turns fatty acids into Acetyl CoA
Produces 129 ATP

31

What does the final cleavage of beta oxidation in an odd numbered fatty acid produce

Propionyl CoA

32

If you have a vitamin b12 deficiency what will be found in your urine

Propionate
Methylmalonate

33

What is refsum disease

Deficiency in peroxisomal phyh deficiency

34

What are the three metabolic products of ketone bodies

Acetone
3hydroxybutyrate
Acetoacetate

35

What is the rate limiting step in ketone body synthesis and present only in the liver

HMG CoA synthase

36

What organ cannot use ketone bodies as fuel because it lacks thiophorase

Liver