Flashcards in glycolysis Deck (27):
what is the end product in anaerobic glycolysis?
what is the end product in aerobic glycolysis?
what tissues are GLUT-1 found in?
esp. brain and RBCs
what tissues are GLUT-2 found in?
pancreatic beta cells
what tissues are GLUT-3 found in?
what tissues are GLUT-4 found in?
how does the Na+- monosaccharide cotransporter system work?
glucose moved into cell against the gradient
Na+ moved into cell w/ glucose with its gradient (from low to high)
where does the energy needed for the Na+ monosaccharide cotransporter system come from?
Na+, K+- ATPase (pumps sodium ions)
what are the transporters called that move glucose in the Na+ monosaccharide cotransporter system?
sodium-dependent- glucose- transporters
what are the 2 stages of glycolysis?
energy investment & energy generation
where is hexokinase found and what is the Km and Vmax (relatively)?
where is glucokinase found and what is the Km and Vmax (relatively)?
liver/ pancreatic beta cells
how does the well fed state affect PFK-2 and thus PFK-1?
PFK-2 is dephosphorylated and ACTIVE
F-2,6BP is made
PFK-1 is activated
how does the fasting state affect PFK-2 and thus PFK-1?
PFK-2 is phosphorylated and INACTIVE
F-2,6BP is not made
PFK-1 is not activated
when is pyruvate kinase active in the liver?
during well fed state
how is NAD+ regenerated in the aerobic state?
electron transport chain (pyruvate to acetyl CoA)
how is NAD+ regenerated in anaerobic state?
pyruvate is converted to lactate
lactate converted to NADH to NAD+
what enzyme coverts pyruvate in lactate?
what are the 3 ways pyruvate can be used?
turned into lactate
the lactate can be converted back into pyruvate in the liver for gluconeogenesis
can be converted to oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis
what is the NET energy yield of anaerobic glycolysis?
2 ATP/ glucose
what is the NET energy yield of aerobic glycolysis?
2 NADH/ glucose
what are the 3 key enzymes that are under hormonal regulation by the liver (aka insulin and glucagon)?
how does insulin and glucagon affect the key enzymes of glycolysis?
what causes maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)?
mutations that reduce glucokinase
how does arsenic poisoning affect glycolysis?
arsenic competes w/ inorganic phosphate as a substrate for glyceraldehyde 3-P
if it wins, the ATP generation step will be skipped and the net energy will be 0
what part of the body does pyruvate kinase deficiency affect?
RBCs because they rely completely on glycolysis for energy